Chapter 11

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Chapter 11
2012-11-12 23:26:19

Regulatory Mechanisms
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  1. The tendency to maintain the relative consistency of certain variables, even in the face of significant environmental changes.
  2. What achieves homeostatic control of our extracellular fluid characteristics?
    Drinking and eating
  3. Homeostasis maintains a constant what, which includes temperature, blood, gases, glucose, and socium
    Internal environment
  4. Characteristic to be regulated, body fluids.
    System variable
  5. Optimal value system of the system variable, optimal fluid level.
    Set point
  6. Monitors the value of the system variable, mechaism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point
  7. The mechanism that restores the system variable to its set point
    Correctional mechanism
  8. A process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to terminate the action
    Negative feedback
  9. Eating and drinking, regulatory mechaism to restore lost fluid and nutrients
    Ingestive behavior
  10. A brain mechanism that causes cessation of hunger or thirst
    Satiety mechanism
  11. About what percentage of our body is made up of fluid?
  12. How many days can we go without water and survive?
    3-5 days
  13. Sensation of thirst does not occur until we are...
    mildly dehyrdrated (1-3% loss of body weight due to fluid loss)
  14. Increased osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid relative to the intracellular fluid leads to dehydration
    Osmometric thirst
  15. These are specialized multipolar neurons that are rich around the third ventricle
  16. In osmometric thirst, as water leaves the receptor cell, what happens to axon activity?
    It increases
  17. What is being monitored with osmometric thirst?
    Central nervous system
  18. With this type of thirst, volume of blood plasma decreases
    Volumetric thirst
  19. The kidneys are involved in what type of thirst?
  20. The release of aldosterone leads to what craving?
  21. This tries to retain as much water in the body as possible during volumetric thirst...
  22. What keeps our cells alive?
    Oxygen and fule
  23. What are the short term reservoirs of fuel in the body?
  24. What are the long term storage reservoirs in the body?
  25. What are the two phases of metabolism?
    Fasting and absorptive phase
  26. In this phase, nutrients are not available from the digestive system. Fuel used first in the short term reserves. Once those are used, goes after the long term reserves.
    Fasting phase
  27. In this phase, nutrients are absorbed from the digestive tract, which is full.
    Absorptive phase
  28. Muscle and liver cells are filled with complex involuble carbs (short term reserves) called what?
  29. What kind of tissue is filled with fats?
    Adipose tissue
  30. Complex molecules that cobine glycerol with 3 fatty acids
  31. Fatty acids are broken down by most cells in the body except where?
    The brain
  32. This is used for fuel when insulin levels drop significantly and the drop is sustained.
  33. The brain uses what as an energy source?
  34. This is caused by drop in blood glucose levels or drugs that inhibit glucose metabolism. It stimulates eating.
  35. Afferent fibers in this glucoreceptor respond to blood glucose levels and lipoprivation
  36. What are two main glucoreceptors?
    Liver and the brain
  37. Drop in fatty acids available to cells that is usually caused by drugs.
  38. If we had very efficient metabolisms, what would we look like?
    Very large
  39. How many people in the US are overweight?
    34 million