Bio 2010

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Bio 2010
2012-11-13 11:54:15
Molds Algae protozoans yeast

Bio 2010 Flashcards
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  1. Diatoms?
    • golden brown algae (chrysophyta=class)
    • contains pectin and silicone dioxide
    • producer
  2. Dinoflagellates?
    • (pyrrophyta) triple membrane bound
    • has chlorophyll, carotene, and peridinin
    • has armored plates made of cellulose
    • has two flagella (motile)
    • producer
  3. Gymnodium breve?
    • transmits red back, making water red
    • breve toxin-kills fish, tingling of extremities in man
  4. Pfiesteria piscida?
    • causes confusion of fish
    • has 2 toxins-neurotixins and tissue toxin
    • causes lesions on fish and scales sloughs away
    • in man-inhaling and mental problems
  5. Euglenoid-Euglena?
    • own group (euglenoid) was created
    • is mobile and has producer 
    • lacks cell wall
    • euglenaphyta
  6. characteristics of protozoans?
    unicellular, microscopic organisms, engulf food, motility, found in fresh or salt water and can be terrestrial (swamp), animal-like, no phytosynthetic properties,
  7. Ciliate-Paramedium?
    consumes algae, good acquatic indicator, non-pathogenic
  8. Ciliate-Balantidium coli?
    • causes Balantidias, endemic (prevalant) in Phillapines, cyst released w/fecal matter of pigs & ingested by man through contaminated water and food.
    • troph stage attaches to walls of large intestine
    • causes dysentary, perforation of intestine & peritonitis
    • pathogen
  9. Plasmodium
    Near belt of equator, in RBC's of someone with malaria
  10. Life Cycle of Female Anopheles Mosquito
    • 1. Sporozoites-infectious stage
    • 2. Sporozoites travel through blood to liver 
    •      hepatocytes (liver cells) remove sporozoites from blood 
    • 3. Replication yields Merozoites rupturing the hepathocytes
    • 4. Merozoites into blood and enter RVC
    • 5. In RBC's, merozoites replicate and form trophozoites
  11. Continued Life Cycle of Anopheles Mosquito
    • 5A. Merozoites lyse RBC's (chills, fever)
    •        Enter more RBC's
    •        This continues 
    • 5B. For a few mosquitos, production of gametocytes (sex cells)
    • 6. Gametocytes w/in RBC's are picked up by new female mosquito
    • 7. Stores n gut region where they undergo sexual reproduction. Male and Female gametocytes fuse zygote
    • 8. Zygote yields sporozoites sored in salivary glands
    •     Definitive host yields sexual reproduction
    •     Secondary host yields asexual reproduction
  12. Toxoplasma gondi(toxoplasmosis)
    • causative agent-bana shaped protozoans w/encapsulated cyst form
    • ingestion of undercooked lamb or of cyst from cat feces
    • if pregnant, don't touch litter box
    •      cyst stage is inhaled and crosses placenta
    •      1st trimester-spontaneous abortion
    •      3rd trimester-birth defects
    • cat gets it from rodent
  13. Giardi lamblia (hiker's diarrhea)
    • from beavers, muskrats and raccoons
    • must boil and filter water as cyst is head and acid reistant
    • symptoms-frothy diarrhea due to inability to absorb fats, abominal cramps and weight loss
  14. Trypanosoma
    • two species-brucei gamblense and cruzi
    • both look same on blood smear
    • diagnosis to species by history of patient travel
    •      african sleeping sickness
    •      chaga's-southwest US or central America
  15. Trypansoma Cont.
    • vectors
    •      brucei-tsetse fly
    •      cruzi-reduvid bug
  16. Amoeba proteus
    • consumers (engulfment)
    • fresh water
    • good aquatic indicators
    • pseudopodia is end of psytoplasmic streaming
    • psytoplasmic=what they move by
  17. Entamoeba hystolytica
    • cyst ingested through contaminated water
    • troph attaches to lining of large intestine
    • causes amoebic dysentary (bloody diarrhea)
    • eats our RBC's
  18. Fungi characteristics
    • saphrophytic-require organic source of carbon for
    •      protein synthesis
    •      source for energy production (CHO)
    • aerobic or facultative anaerobes
    • have chitin (hard exo-skeleton) w/in cell walls
    • two groups-=molds and yeasts
  19. mold characteristics
    • mycelium-white spiderweb-like mold (type)
    • structure
    • where found
    • optimum conditions for growth
    • filamentous (one strand is hyphae, a lot is mycelium)
    • terrestrial, moist environment, 70% or > humidity
    • temp= -6-to 50 degrees C (opt-20-35)
    • PH range, most <5, but range from 2-9
  20. Rhizopus Stolonifer (black bread mold)
    • white filamentous hyphae w/black sporulating structure
    • asexual sporangiospores w/in sporangium
    • sporangium breaks open and spores go to other mycelium
  21. Aspergillus Flavus
    • mycelium is greenish-gray due to sporulating structures
    • considered pathogen
    • causes farmers lung or a spergillosis and aflotoxins
    • growth on grains and peanuts
  22. Penicillium
    • blue gray filamentous mycelium
    • conidia are present on tips of phialids yielding brush-like appearance
    • penicillium notatum is used to make penicillin
    • other penicillium species are used in cheese production
  23. Histoplasma capsulatum-Dimorphic Fungi
    • microconidia of mold phase 
    • budding yeast w/in macrophage in lung tissue
  24. Spelunkers Disease
    • caused by histoplasma capsulatum
    • found in bird and bat feces (organic matter they decompose)
    • bats and birds not contaminated w/ M.O.
    • inhaling spores causes Histoplasmosis
  25. Symbiotic funti-mycorrhiza
    • traps moisture in roots
    • acts as decomposer
    • grows in Douglass fern
    • controlled by soi.
  26. Lichens
    • Symbiotic relationship between algae or Cyanobacterium (both give sugar) and a mold (traps moisture)
    • environmentall conscious=little or no pollution
    • good environmental indicator
  27. Yeast characteristics
    • unicellular
    • reproduce by budding
    • under fermentation
    • sugar + yeast yields alcohol + CO2
  28. Saccharomyces Cervisiae (gram positive)
    • used in production of
    •      bread
    •      beer (S.C. +barley and hopps)
    •      wine (S.C. + grapes)
  29. Candida albicans
    • normal flora in low #'s w/in
    •      oral cavity
    •      vaginal area of women
    • #'s kept in check by presence of Lactobacillus
    •      produces lactic acid as waste product
    •      keeps pH low-causes yeast infection
    • oral antibiotics can cause overgrowth of candida albicans
    • thrush-in infacts and babies
    •      overload of candida
    •      indicator of AIDS
    •      adults who are immune suppressed get thrush
    • vaginitis-too much lactobacillus
  30. Differentiation of candida and Saccharomyces
    • has same colonial morphology and gram stain
    • Germ Tube Test-put them in plasma
    •      germ tube test (+) for candida in plasma
    •      germ tube test (-) for saccharomyces
  31. Cryptococcus neoformans
    • encapsulated yeast
    • found in soil and pigeon droppings
    • aerosolizes and inhaled (goes to lung to blood, travels through blood brain barrier inflamation in meninges (covering of brain)
    • pathogen