Exam 4 Applied Nutrition Horses 1
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Is the digestive tract of a horse designed as for a continuous feeder or as a meal feeder?
What is a continuous Feeder?
An animal that eats small amounts of food on a frequient basis.
Is the digesta in the stomach of a horse mixed or layered?
Food is Layered
Why is it important that food is layered in a horses stomach.
By knowing this we can feed roughage before concentrates to slow the rate of passage and alow the horse to break down and absorbe more of the starch before it enters the cecum and can cause colic.
Since we typically feed horses once or twice per day, how does feeding meals versus continuous feeding cause potential digestive problems in the horses?
By feeding meals we can overload the digestive tract and caused many problem within the horse like, gastric distension (since the horse can't vomit), impaction, or founder(laminitis) or lastly colic.
The cecum in the hind gut of the horse is very important to nutritional management and feeding strategy of the horse. Why?
It acts similar to the rumen in cattle except that it is post-gastric (behind the small intestin). Alows the horse to digest roughage although horses do not utilize poor quality forages very well.
What is formed with the cecum of a horse and what can they use?
B-complex vitamins and microbial protein are formed. some of the b-complex vitamins are able to be asorbed but the microbial protein is lost in the feces of the horse unless the horse practices caprophagy.
What is impaction colic? and what does it do to a horse?
- Where forages and feeds are packed to gether with the horses ileocecal junction (where small intestine "Ileum" and the cecum join) and ball up and will not pass.
- 1) damage to ileocecal junction or pelvic flexure
- 2) may be caused by parasites (roundworms in large number)
- 3) Low H20 intake can also cause it
What is digestive colic?
- 1. Cause: Gas production in cecum due to exessive starch fermentation.
- 2. Prevention: We can prevent this by controlling the amount of starch that is consumed at on time.
- 3. Rules: 1Never want to exceed 0.5% of body weight per feeding when feeding concentrate.
- 4. Rule 2: 1.5%of body weight throughout the day.
What is founder in a horse?
- 1. CHO overload: exess starch spills over into cecum from small intestin (S.I.)
- 2. Rapid fermentation: starch is broken down quickly increasing Lactic acid and dropping pH within cecum
- 3. Change in microbial population: Cellulolytic to Amylolytic(Lactobacillus)
- 4. Endotoxins: formed, absorbed, and flow to hoof
- 5. Histamine: release, laminae damaged
What do horses do to utilize microbial protein with cecum and large intestine?
Practice Coprophagy or the act of eating ones own feces. Enables horse to recycle syntesized microbial protein and thus, the essential amino acids.
What are the goals of horses fed a traditional feeding strategy?
- 1) priority is protecting the feet and legs of the animal
- 2) practical, safe
- 3) growth at a slow pace
What are the intended uses of horses fed a modern feeding strategy?
- 1) Racing
- 2) Showing
- 3) Selling
What is the goal of mature weight at yearlings on a traditional feeding strategy?
50% of mature weight
What is the desired % of mature weight as a 2yr old for a traditional feeding strategy?
What is the desired % of mature weight for yearlings on a modern feeding strategy?
What is the desired % of mature weight at 2yr old on the modern feeding strategy?
What is Nutrient : Calorie Ratios?
The ratio of CP, Lysine, Calcium and Phosphorus to Mcal of Digestible Energy
What is grams CP: Mcal DE
the nutrient: calorie ratio for Crude Protein to mega cals of digestible energy
What is grams Lysine:Mcal DE?
the nutrient calorie ratio for lysine to mega cal of digestible energy.
What is Ca:Mcal DE
grams of Calcium to mega calories of digestible energy in the nutrient: calorie ratio
what is grams Phos:Mcal DE
the nutrient :calorie ratio for Phosphorus to mega calories of digestible energy
How do we utilize the nutrient calorie ratio when feeding young performance horse?
Used to maximis growth with in a young horse my balancing all requirements agains required Mcal DE
What is the energy measure used in the formulation of diets for horses?
Mcal DE or mega calories of digestible energy
What is the digestible Energy content of a 75% TDN ration?
.75 * 2 = 1.5 Mcal DE
What is the proper body condition score of afoaling mare to optimize reproductive performance?
What is the perctage increase in DE requirements above maintenance in the 9th month of gestation?
What is the percentage increase in DE requirement above maintenance in the 10th month of gestation?
What is the percentage increase in DE requirement above maintenance in the 11th month of gestation?
How much milk does a mare produce in early lactation?
3% of body weight
How much milk does a mare produce in late lactation?
2% of body weight
What is the increase over maintenance of Mcal DE required by the mare when lactating?
0.8 Mcal DE per kg of milk produced
What is the approximate DE increase over maintenance of a lactating mare?
100% increase in DE requirements
What are examples of light work for a horse?
western or english pleasure, trail riding
What are examples of moderate work for a horse?
Ranch work, Roping, Cutting, Barrel Racing, Jumping
What are examples of Intense work for a horse?
Race training, or Polo
What is the increase of energy requirments for a horse doing light work
25% above maintenance
What is the increase in energy requirments for a horse doing moderate work?
50% over maintenance
What is the increase in energy requirements of a horse doing intense work?
100% above maintenance
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