HAPS 4

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daniellemarie
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183466
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HAPS 4
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2012-12-02 22:27:33
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digestion
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digestion
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  1. what are the four funcitons of the digestion system?
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • secretion
    • defecation
  2. what function of the digestive system is the physical/ mechanical breakdown of food into more but smaller pieces which increases the surface area?
    digestion
  3. what is the importance of breaking down food into smaller pieces to create more surface area?
    for the chemical breakdown into molecules small enough so that they can diffuse out of intestines and into cells
  4. what function of the digestion system is the passage of digested food from the intestines into the bloodstream which delivers it to all parts of the body
    absorption
  5. what function of the digestive system is the release of water, acids, enzymes, buffers, and salts into the digestive tract
    secretion
  6. what function of the digestive system is the elimination of digestive by-products and indgiestible food via the anus
    defecation
  7. what is the sum of all biochemical processes taking place within the human body
    metabolism
  8. what is the tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus called
    digestive tract/ alimentary canal
  9. how long is the alimentary canal
    approximately 29 feet
  10. what is the pathway of food
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum
  11. what is digested food refered to when its in the pharynx and esophagus
    bolus
  12. what is digested food refered to as when its in the stomach and small intestine
    chyme
  13. what is digested food refered to as when it is in the large intestine and rectum
    feces
  14. What are the parts of the large intestine
    cecum, colon, ascending transverse and descending colon, sigmoid
  15. what does the digestive system break down DNA
    so we can use it for our own DNA
  16. What organ of the digetive system is the flap that closes the windpipe during swallowing
    epiglottis
  17. what organ of the digestive system is a wind-pipe thats not really part of the digestive system
    trachea
  18. what organ of the digestive system is a vein that carries blood away from the liver
    hepatic vein
  19. what organ of the digestive system stores food and makes chemical changes in it
    liver
  20. what organ of the digestive system is sheltered by the liver and stores bile
    gallbladder
  21. what organ of the digestive sytem if the first part of the small intestine, bile from the liver breaks up the fat and juice from pancreas
    duodenum
  22. what organ of the digestive system carries blood from the entire digestive tact to liver
    portal vein
  23. what organ of the digestive system drains intestinal tract, carrying digested food into the portal vein
    veins
  24. what lives in the intestine and makes vitamins used by the human body
    bacteria
  25. what ogan of the digestive system grinds food and mixes it with salia where digestion begins
    mouth
  26. what organ of the digestive system makes saliva and starts the digestion of starch
  27. salivary glands
  28. what organ of the digestive system passses food from the mouth to the stomach by a process known as peristalsis
    esophagus
  29. what organ of the digestive system holds and mixes food, glands in the lining of the uper two thirds produces digestive which
    stomach
  30. what organ of the digestive system makes enzymes that break down all types of food
    pancreas
  31. what organ of the digestive system has fluids from intesintal glands that dilute food and food is absorbed into the bloodstream
    small intestine
  32. what organ of the digesiton system has fluid absrobed from indigestible food, waste becomes solid, contains waste
    large intestine
  33. what organ of the digestive system is the end where waste leaves the body
    anus
  34. what is a wave of smooth muscle contraction that proples materials through a tube
    peristalsis
  35. What happens to the luman width when  circcular muscle contraction occurs
    gets smaller
  36. what happens to lumen width when longitudinal muscle contraction occurs
    gets larger
  37. what happens to the intestine length when circular muscle contraciton occurs
    gets longer
  38. what happens to the intestine length when longitudinal muscle contraction occurs
    gets shorter
  39. what are the layers of the digestive tract refered to as
    tunics
  40. what is the open space within the digestive tract where digested food travels called
    lumen
  41. what are the four tunis of the digestive tract
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  42. what is the order of the tunics from the inside out
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  43. what is the innermost layer of the mucosa tunic
    epithelium
  44. what are the 3 primary funcitons of the mucosa
    • protecting from infection
    • secrete substances into the lumen
    • absorb digested molecules
  45. What are the most strained parts of the mucosa lined with
    stratified squamous epithelia
  46. what is the mucosa, except for the strained parts, lined with
    columnar epithelia
  47. what part of the mucosa tunic sits atop the epithelium and consists of loose connective tissues wiht capillaries to nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients
    lamina propria
  48. Where are lymph nodes located
    • pharynx(tonsils)
    • appendix
    • ileum
  49. what part of the mucosa tunic is important in the defense agaisnt pathogens
    lymph nodes
  50. what part of the mucosa tunic surounds the lamina propria and produces movements of the mucosa and the small intestine and also folds it into a serious of small wrinkles that increase the surface area
    muscularis mucosae
  51. which tunic lies just external to the muscularis mucoae
    submucosa
  52. which tunic is a dense connective tissue that contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodules, and nerve fibers
    submucosa
  53. what tunic is is also called muscularis externa
    muscularis
  54. which tunic is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis
    muscularis
  55. what tunic consists of an inner layer of circular muscle and an outer layer of longitudinal muscle
    muscularis
  56. When does circular muscle thicken
    to form sphincters
  57. which tunic layer is the protective outermost layer
    serosa
  58. what is another name for serosa
    visceral peritoneum
  59. what is a connective tissue that binds the esophagus to surrounding structures
    adventitia
  60. what is the esophagus surrounded by
    serosa but not adventita
  61. which organs have both a serosa and adventita surrounding them
    retroperitoneal organs
  62. What is the serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and most of its organs called
    peritoneum
  63. What is the membrane that covers organs of the abdominopelvic cavity calledv
    visceral peritoneum
  64. What membrane lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
    parietal peritoneum
  65. What is between the visceral and parietal peritoneum
    peritoneal cavity
  66. What is the samll space containing fluid secreated by the serous membranes to reduce friction between the organs and between organs and body wall
    peritoneal cavity
  67. What tissues make up the peritoneum
    epithelial and connective tissue
  68. what connects the visceral and parietal peritoneums and is also a fused double layer of peritoneum
    mesentery
  69. what provides a route for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves to digestive organs; also helps to the hold the organs in place and stores fat
    mesentary
  70. what are the 3 types of mesenteries
    • lesser omentum
    • greater omentum
    • mesocolon
  71. which mesentary connects the stomach and liver to ventral abdominal wall
    less omentum
  72. which mesentery hangs like an apron from the lateral and inferior borders of the stomach and covers intestines
    greater omentum
  73. which mesentery contains fat that provides padding and protection for the abdomen
    greater omentum
  74. which mesentery connects portions of the large intestine and rectum to the posterior body wall
    mesocolon
  75. what is another name for the mouth
    buccal or oral cavity
  76. what organ of the digestive tract opens anteriorly via the lips and posteriorly into the oropharynx
    mouth
  77. what is the only organ that ingests food
    mouth
  78. what does the mouth of the digestive tract function in
    mechanical and chemical digestion
  79. what body parts make up the mouth
    • labia
    • frenulum
    • vestibule
    • gingiva
    • teeth
    • palates
    • uvula
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
  80. what body part of the mouth keeps food between the teeth during mastication
    labia
  81. which body part of the mouth is the fold of membrane that connects lips to gums and the tongue to the floor of the mouth
    frenulum
  82. which frenulum connects lips to gums
    labial frenulum
  83. which frenulum connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth
    lingual frenulum
  84. what body part of the mouth is the space between the lips and gums
    vestibule
  85. what body part of the mouth is comprised of stratified squamous epithelium and dense connective tissue
    gingiva
  86. what body part of the mouth sits atop the maxilla and mandible bones and surrounds the holes at the base of each tooth
    gingiva
  87. what body part of the mouth perfomrs mastication
    teeth
  88. what is the order of the types of teeth from front to back
    • incisors
    • canines/cuspids
    • premolars and molars
  89. how many baby teeth are there
    20
  90. how many adult teeth are there
    32
  91. what are the 3 types of tissue of the tooth
    • enamel
    • dentin
    • cementum
  92. what type of tissue of teeth is the hardest human material that protects agaisnt tooth decay
    enamel
  93. what type of tissue of teeth is a nonliving substance much like a bone that occupies the bulk of the tooth
    dentin
  94. what type of tissue of teeth covers the dentin of the root providing protection and anchorage to the preriodontal ligament
    cementum
  95. what is the tooth above the gums called
    crown
  96. what is the tooth part below the gums called
    root
  97. what is the interior portion of a tooth containing loose connective tissue, capillaries, nerves and lymph tissues
    pulp cavity
  98. what are the extenions of the pulp cavity toward the tooth's roots called
    root canals
  99. what is the base of the root canal that is a hole allowing blood vessels and nerves into the pulp cavity
    apical foramen
  100. what anchors the teeth to the gums
    peridontal ligament/membrane
  101. what body part of the mouth form the roof of the mouth and aid in mechanical digestion and the formation of the bolus for easier swallowing
    palates
  102. what body part of the mouth is the muscular tissue that hangs from the soft palate and functions in preventing contents of the mouth to enter the nasal cavity
    uvula
  103. what body part of the mouth is the strong muscular organ that funcitons in the mechanical digestion of food and can analyze food by touch, taste, and temperature
    tongue
  104. what body part of the mouth produces lingual lipase which begins the breakdown of lipids
    tongue
  105. what body part of the mouth secretes digestive juices into the buccal cavity
    salivary glands
  106. what does saliva mainly consist of
    99% water
  107. what are the solutes contained in saliva
    • amylase/ptyalin
    • bicarbonates and phosphates
    • lysozymes
  108. what solute of the saliva functions in the break down of starch
    amylase/pytalin
  109. which solute of saliva functions as a buffer to neutralize the oral cavity ph
  110. bircaronates and phosphates
  111. which solute of saliva kills bacteria
    lysozymes
  112. what are the 3 types of salivary glands
    • parotid
    • sublingual
    • submandibular
  113. which salivary gland lies besdies the ear and dumbs secretions into the vestibule opposite the 2nd maxillary molar tooth
    parotid
  114. which salivary gland produces large amounts of salivary amylase
    parotid
  115. which salivary gland lies beneath the tongue and produces a watery mucous that buffers and lubricates
    sublingual
  116. which salivary gland lies along and below the mandible bone and secretes buffers and salivary amylase
    submandibular
  117. what organ of the digestive system is a muscular tube suspended from the base of the skull in front of the cervial vertebrae lined with a mucous membrane
    pharynx
  118. what organ of the digestive system connects the mouth to the esophagus and trachea
    pharynx
  119. what are the 3 parts of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • larynopharynx
  120. what part of the pharynx is located behind the nasal chamber and has no role in digestion
    nasopharynx
  121. what part of the pharynx is located beneath the nasopharynx and behind the oral cavity
    oropharynx
  122. what part of the pharynx is located below the oropharynx and behind the larynx
    laryngopharynx
  123. what is the lymphoid tissue protecting the nasal cavity, its sinuses, and the digestive tract called
    pharyngeal tonsil/adenoids
  124. what is the lymphoid tissue protecting the digestive tract from pathogens called
    paltine and lingual tonsil
  125. what is the cartilage flap at the oro-laryngopharynx border that covers the trachea while swallowing food and water called
    epiglottis
  126. what organ of the digestive system lies posterior to the trachea and carries the bolus from the laryngopharynx to the stomach
    esophagus
  127. what is the process of moving the bolus from the mouth to the stomach called
    degluition/swallowing
  128. what does the bolus enter the stomach through
    cardiac sphincter
  129. what part of the stomach prevents contents of the stomach from reentering the esophagus
    cardiac sphincter
  130. what happens to the stomach when it is empty
    folds into rugae
  131. what part of the stomach prevents watery chyme from reentering the stomach from the duodenum
    pyloric sphincter
  132. what organ of the digestive system is a long muscular tube where the final digestion and most absorption takes place
    small intestine
  133. what are the 3 divisions of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  134. what part of the small intestine receives digestive secretions from both the liver and the pancreas
    duodenum
  135. what does the duodenum produce to increase the pH of chyme leaving the stomach
    buffers
  136. what is produced in the intestines to protect the lining
    mucous
  137. what divison of the small intestine is the majority of the chemical digestions and nutrient absorptions that occurs in this portion of the intestine
    jejunum
  138. what division of the small intestine is the longest portion
    ileum
  139. where does the ileum end at
    the ileocecal valve of the large intestine
  140. what part of the digestive system prevents the back flow of feces into the ileum of the small intestines
    ileocecal valve
  141. what are the lymphatic nodules that protect agaisnt fecal bacteria called
    peyer's patches
  142. what do the mucosa and submucosa layers of the small intestine contain
    • plicae circulates
    • villi
    • microvilli
  143. how much food does the small intestine absorb
    90%
  144. what are deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend either entirely or partway around the circumference of the intestine called
    plicae circulares
  145. what part of the small intestine forces chyme to spiarl through the lumen continually mixing chyme with intestinal juices
    plicae circulares
  146. what part of the small intestine slows chyme movement to allow time for complete nurtient absorption
    plicae circulares
  147. what part of the small intestines are the finger like projections of the mucosa that contain absorptive epithelia cells
    villi
  148. what do villi contain that take absorbed nutrients into the vascular system, nerves and lacteals
    capillaries
  149. what are the lympatic capillaries that absorb digestive material  not able to be absrobed by blood capillaries
    lacteals
  150. what part of the small intestine are tiny projections of the absorptive eipthelia cells that give mucosal surface a fuzzy appearance sometimes called brush border
    mircovilli
  151. what organ of the digestive system is a muscular tube that frames the small intestine on 3 sides and extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus
    large intestine
  152. what organ of the digestive system primary functions include water and vitamin absorption and elimination of solid waste
    large intestine
  153. what are the 8 divisions of the large intestine
    • cecum
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid
    • rectum
    • anus
  154. how long do material remain in the large intestine
    24 hours
  155. what are the contractions of 3 longitudinal muscle bands in the large intestine calld
    taeniae coli
  156. what are the baglike pouches formed from the contractions of the taeniae ccoli
    haustra
  157. What in the large intestine provides a slow movement of chyme from ileocecal valce to the transverse colon
    haustral
  158. What are the strong intestinal contractions over large areas in the large intestine called
    mass movements
  159. where does mass movement/ peristalsis occur
    from the transverse colon analward
  160. when do mass movements usually occur and for how long
    3-4 times a day, 10-30 minutes
  161. what controls the defecation at the rectum
    internal anal sphincter
  162. what type of muscle is involved in the external anal sphincter
    skeletal muscle-voluntary
  163. how much water do feces contain
    75%
  164. how much bacteria, cellulose, cellular debris, salts and bile pigments do feces contain
    25%
  165. what gives feces its brown color
    bile pigments- bilirubin by- products
  166. what causes the digestion in the large intestine
    bacteria
  167. where does absorption take place in the large intestine
    proximal portion
  168. where does the storage of feces take place in the large intestine
    distal parts
  169. what results in the waste products nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, and hydrogen sulfide
    bacteral metabolism
  170. what are nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methan, and hydrogen sulfide called when they are all mixed together
    flatus-(gas)`
  171. What vitamins does bacteria synthesize
    • k
    • glucose
    • b5
  172. what type of vitamin helps clot
    k
  173. what type of vitamin is responsible for glucose metabolism
    biotin
  174. what type of vitamin is responsible for neuortransmitters and steroid production
    b5
  175. what organ of the digestive system lies behind the stomach and extends laterally from the duodenum toward the spleen
    pancreas
  176. what organ of the digestive system if the only gland that is both endocrine and exocrine
    pancreas
  177. why is the pancrease considered endocrine
    regulates blood sugar- insulin and glucagon
  178. why is the pancreas considered exocrine
    secretes digestive juices to the duodenum
  179. how long is the pancreas and how much does it weigh
    • 6 inches
    • 3oz
  180. what organ in the digestive system is the largest interanl organ
    liver
  181. what organ of the digestive system is in the upper abdominopelvic cavity and is inferior to the diaphragm and is opposite the stomach
    liver
  182. what allows the liver to receive all blood that is absorbed through the intestines
    hepatic portal vein
  183. what is the network of blood vessels connection capillary beds between the intestine and the liver called
    hepatic portal system
  184. What are the 4 reasons why blood goes through the liver
    • supply it with oygen
    • supply with nutrients
    • to be regulated for carbs, lipids, proteins
    • removal of toxins
  185. what are the 5 functions of the liver
    • carbohydrate metabolism
    • lipid metabolism
    • amino acid metabolism
    • removal of waste products
    • vitamin and mineral storage
  186. through what process can the liver make glucose from other molecules
    gluconeogenesis
  187. what reaction of the liver occurs if the blood glucose levels decline
    liver cells break down glycogen reserces and release glucose into the circulation
  188. what reaction of the liver occurs if the blood glucose levels increase
    liver cells remove glucoe from the circulation and either store it as glycogen or uses it to make lipids to store in other tissues
  189. what function of the liver is the stabilization of blood glucose levels
    carbs metabolism
  190. what 3 types of circulating levels of lipids does the liver regulate
    • triglycerides
    • fatty acids
    • cholesterol
  191. what reaction of the liver occurs when lipid levels decline
    liver breaks down its lipid reserces and releases them into circulation
  192. what fucntion of the liver removes excess amino acids from the circulation
    amino acid metabolism
  193. What is the process called that strips off amino groups that produces ammonia
    deamination
  194. what is a toxic waste product the liver neutralizes through the conversion to urea
    ammonia
  195. What function of the liver stores and absorbs fat soluble vitamins and vitamin b12 
    vitamin and mineral storage
  196. what organ of the digestive system is a pear shaped muscular organ that stores and concentrates bile that has been made by the liver
    gallbladder
  197. what are all the cell's organic monomers and polymer's collectively termed
    nutrient pool
  198. what is the process that breaks down organic substances and releases energy that can be used to synthesize ATP or other high energy compounds
    catabolism/dehydration synthesis
  199. where does catabolism preliminary processing occur
    cytoplasm
  200. where do enzymes break down macromolecules into polymers and monomers
    in the cytoplasm
  201. what does energy leave the body as
    heat
  202. what process is the synthesis of new molecules and other cell functions
    anabolism/hydration synthesis
  203. what is the source of molecules for catabolism and metabolism
    nutrient pool
  204. what is the biggest waste product of the body
    heat
  205. what are drugs that promote defecation called
    cathartics
  206. what disorder is the inflammation of the gallbladder due to blockage of the cystic or common bile duct by gallstones
    cholecystitis
  207. what disorder is the widespread destruction of liver cells due to druge exposure, viral infection, ischemia, or blocked ducts
    cirrhosis
  208. what is the use of a colonscope insterted through the anus to view the colon for tumors, lesions, etc called
    colonoscopy
  209. what is the attachment of the cut end of the colon to an opening in the body wall after a colonectomy
    colostomy
  210. what disorder is the inflammation of the small intestine and/or large intestine and can be caused by genetic, autoimmune, or environment
    crohn's disease
  211. what disorder is a genetic disease which causes excessive secretions of mucous that inhibits proper absorption of nutrients
    cystic fibrosis
  212. what disorder is tooth decay caused by acid waste products of bacetria of the ename and dentin of teeth causing a cavity
    dental caries
  213. what disorder is the inflammation of the diverticula and include colic spasms and cramps
    diverticularis
  214. what disorder is the surgical reduction of the stomach to attempt to correct overeating disorders
    gastric stapling
  215. what disorder are the weakend veins within the lining of the anal canal that become enlarged causing itching, bleeding, and pain
    hemorrhoids
  216. what disorder is the weakening of the diaphragm that allows the stomach to enter the thoracic cavity poissbly causing dysphagia or ulcers
    hiatal hernia
  217. what disorder is the yellowness of the skin and eyes casued by a backup of bile pigment into the blood
    jaundice
  218. what is the use of a flexible fiber optic instrument put through the abdominal wall to view, takes samples, or perform surgery
    laparoscropy
  219. what disorder is the viral infection of the parotid salivary gland
    mumps
  220. what disorder is the erosion of the gastic lining or duodenal lining by stomach acids and enzymes becasue of Heliobacter infection
    ulcer
  221. what disorder is a dangerous ulcer in which gastric acids and enzymes erode the digestive tract and enter the peritoneal cavity
    perforated ulcer
  222. what disorder is the congenital condition in which the pyloric muscle increases in size, obstructing gastric emptying
    pyloric stenosis

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