What students can accomplish on their own and what they can do with assistance (Vagotsky)
Behaviorist. Reinforcing successive approximations for end goal (rehearsal is an example)
Assessment; tests need to demonstrate validity and reliability in order to be stable. Doe the test cover what was discussed in class and are the questions proportional to the amount of time spent covering them?
Based on steps of creating a curriculum. 1) concept development (what do I want to cover?)
2. Subject matter will meet those goals
3. How can we put it together? Sequencing
4. How can it be evaluated?
Learning theory (Jackie Wiggins article). Students constructs learning based on what's around them. Teacher's role is to prepare environmnet (Scaffolding)
For every idea, you have a schema. Learning occurs when a schema changes
(Ausebel) 2 things associated with reception learning. Play recording of difficult piece to inspire. 1) Present idea in FINAL form first before process starts. 2) Advanced organizer (power point or outline--organize material for learner)
(Dalcroze) Responding to music through movement
(David Eliot) Music is something people DO. Every type of music is done with cultural context
Pavlov's dog--basic conditioning
Aural/ Visual/ Kinesthetic
teaching device based on learning modalities--hearing, seeing, experiencing. Danger: We tend to teach the way we learn best.
Bandura Social theory
When we are trying to become members of a community, we look to models (ensemble0who theaches us how to behave?) We behave in a way and store in our mind the models we see around us.
Swiss philosopher and educational theorist. Initial creator of how student develop cognitavely. We will only advance when we are ready. 1) birth-age 2 (sensory-motor), 2) pre-operational age 2-7. We remember consequences (stove hot= pain) 3) Concrete operational-age 7-11steps to achievement. Students begin to understand conservation
4) Formal operational-abstract thinking. Understand sarcasm and puns. Criticism: less age dependent
is the test consistent? Is the grade distribution the same across similar groups?
(Bruner). Same concepts return from one grade to the next but delt at a higher level of sofistication
more sofisticated than classical. Response not necessarily one student would do naturally (BF Skinner--animals go through maze). "I want you to do this math problem"
modes of representing learning
(Bruner). Enactive- doing, being active, iconic-general representation, symbolic- notes on a staff
(Bennet Ramer). Develop sense of aesthetic; too much focus on performance leads to neglect of other aspects (history, composing, arranging). vs. Praxialism