Eukaryotic gene reg

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cooxcooxbananas
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183490
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Eukaryotic gene reg
Updated:
2012-11-13 19:21:39
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genetic ex
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genetics ex 3
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  1. What recruits TFIID to the core promotor and/or activates its function?
    Transcriptional activator
  2. Transcriptional activator recruits ______ to the core promoter and/or activates its function.
    TFIID
  3. Transcriptional activator recruits TFIID to the ________ and/or activates its function.
    Core promoter
  4. Transcriptional activator recruits TFIID to the core promoter and/or ......
    activates its function.
  5. Transcriptional repressor inhibits ______ binding to the core promoter or inhibits its function.
    TFIID
  6. Transcriptional repressor inhibits TFIID binding to the _______ or inhibits its function.
    core promoter
  7. _________ inhibits TFIID binding to the core promoter or inhibits its function.
    transcriptional repressor
  8. Transcriptional repressor inhibits TFIID binding to the core promoter or.....
    inhibits its function
  9. what can recruit TFIIB to the promoter?
    Activators
  10. What can occur from quite a long distance from the start site of transcription?
    gene activation
  11. What are TBP associated Proteins (TAFs) ?
    transcriptional coactivators
  12. Does a TBP (TATA Binding Protein) with no TAFs (TBP associated Protein) support basal transcription or activator-dependent transcription?
    a TBP with no TAFs can only support basal transcription and NOT activator-dependent transcription, because TAFs are needed for activator-dependent transcription
  13. Does a TBP (TATA Binding Protein) with  TAFs (TBP associated Protein) support basal transcription or activator-dependent transcription?
    Yes, a TBP with TAFs supports basal transcription and activator-dependent transcription
  14. TFIID is a general transcription factor that binds to the TATA box and is needed to recruit...
    RNA Polymerase II to the core promoter
  15. __________ are expected to enhance the ability of TFIID to initiate transcription
    activators proteins
  16. coactivators are...
    proteins that increase the rate of transcription but do not directly bind to the DNA itself.
  17. activator proteins exert their effects by interacting with....
    coactivators.
  18. What is a mediator?
    Protein complex involved in response to transcriptional activators
  19. The mediator is associated with the _________ domain of RNAP II
    C-terminal
  20. What stimulates the function of the mediator?
    Transcriptional activator
  21. The stiumltation of the mediator fucntion enables RNA pol to form a....
    preinitiation complex
  22. After RNA pol forms a preinitiaion complex, it proceeds to the _______ phase of transcription
    enlongation
  23. What inhibits the function of the mediator?
    the transcriptional repressor
  24. when the transcriptional repressor inhibits the function of the mediator, transcription is...
    repressed
  25. what is a motif?
    When a domain or portion of a domain has a very similar structure in many different proteins
  26. What is a domain?
    regions in transcription factor proteins that have specific functions
  27. What is the structure of a helix-turn-helix motif?
    two alpha helices are connected by a turn
  28. The alpha helices of the helix-turn-helix motif, lie in what part of the DNA?
    the major groove of the DNA
  29. What is the structure of the helix-loop-helix motif?
    A short alpha helix is connected to a longer alpha helix by a loop.
  30. in a helix-loop-helix motif, what is formed from the interactions of two helix-loop-helix motifs?
    a dimer
  31. in the helix-loop-helix motif, which helices are binding to the DNA?
    the longer helices
  32. what is the structure of the zinc finger motif?
    Each zinc finger is composed of one alpha helix, and two antiparallel beta sheets.
  33. in the zinc-finger motif, what holds the zinc finger together?
    A zinc ion (Zn2+)
  34. What is the structure of the leucine zipper motif?
    two alpha helices (coiled coil) are interwined via the leucines
  35. The leucine zipper promotes the dimerization of ....
    two transcription factor proteins
  36. the leucine zipper promotes the ____________ of two transcription factor proteins...
    dimerization
  37. what is a coiled coil?
    two intertwined alpha helices
  38. What are the four common ways that the function of regulatory trancription factors can be affected?
    • 1. Binding of an effector molecule
    • 2. Protein-protein interactions
    • 3. Covalent modification
    • 4. Compartmentalization
  39. The binding of an effector molecule such as, a ________, may influence the ability of a transcription factor to bind to the DNA.
    hormone
  40. The binding of an _________ such as, a hormone, may influence the ability of a transcription factor to bind to the DNA.
    effector moleclue
  41. The binding of an effector molecule such as, a hormone, may influence the ability of a transcription factor to...
    bind to the DNA.
  42. Protein-protein interactions among transcription factor proteins may....
    influence their functions
  43. covalent modifications such as _______ may alter transcription factor function.
    phosphorylation
  44. in the binding of a small effector molecule (hormone) what binds to the response element?
    transcription factor with a binded hormone
  45. In protein-protein interactions, what binds to the response element?
    two trancription facotr creating 1 homodimer
  46. In covalent modifcation, what binds to the response element?
    two transcriptions factors with something covalently binded to them (PO4 3-)
  47. What is prednisone?
    A synthetic drug used as an immunosuppressant to treat certain inflammatory diseases
  48. What affects the metabolism of carbohydrates?
    Glucocorticoid hormones
  49. Glucocorticoid hormones affect metabolism of carbohydrates and are involved with the _______ system, particularly inflammation.
    immune
  50. Once inside the cell, the glucocorticoid hormone binds to the...
    glucocorticoid receptor
  51. When the glucocorticoid binds to the glucocoritcoid receptor, what is released from the receptor?
    a proteins known as, HSP90
  52. When HSP90 is released from the glucocorticoid receptor, it exposes a ...
    nuclear localization signal (NLS)
  53. After the NLS is exposed, two glucocorticoid receptors then form.....
    a dimer and travel into the nucleus.
  54. When the glucocorticoid dimer gets to the nucleus, it binds to a ________ that is nect to a particular gene.
    glucocorticoid response element (GRE)
  55. The binding of the glucocorticoid receptors to the GRE activates the......
    transcription of the adjacent target gene.
  56. HSP stands for...
    heat shock proteins
  57. What causes the plasma membrane receptor to activate the G protein?
    extracellular signaling molecule
  58. What does the G protein activate, when it is activated by the plasma membrane receptor?
    adenylyl cyclase
  59. adenylyl cyclase is used to make _______ from ATP.
    cAMP
  60. cAMP (Second messenger) bind to ________ to create ATP
    Protein kinase A
  61. What travels into the nucleus and phosphorylates the CREB protein?
    protein kinase A
  62. Once the CREB protein is phosphorylated, is acts as a....
    transcriptional activator
  63. What does CREB protein stand for?
    cAMP Response Element Binding Protein
  64. What receptor is responsible for the activity of the CREB protein?
    G protein coupled receptor GPCR
  65. What does UAS stand for?
    Upstream Activating Sequence
  66. what is the upstream Activating Sequence?
    a cis-acting regulatory sequence (on same DNA molecule) that increases the expression of a neighboring gene. (controlled gene misexpression in drosophila)
  67. Gal4 is always bound to....
    UAS
  68. The availability of Gal 80 to complex with Gal4 is controlled by...
    Gal3
  69. In the presence of Galactose, Gal sequesters ______ in the cytoplasm
    Gal80
  70. In the absence of galactose, Gal4 in complexed with...
    Gal80
  71. In the absence of galactose, Gal4 in complexed with Gal80, and genes are....
    repressed
  72. In the absense of galactose in yeast, genes are....
    repressed
  73. In the presence of galactose, Gal80 is _________
    sequestered
  74. In the presence of galactose, Gal80 is sequesterd and genes are....
    expressed
  75. In the presence of galactose, in yeast, genes are...
    expressed.
  76. What modifies the CTD at the promoter in the pre-initiating RNAPII?
    a nonP factor
  77. What modifies the CTD in the coding region in the initiating RNAPII?
    TFIIH (Ser5P)
  78. What modifies the CTD in the coding region in the enlongating RNAPII?
    CTDK-I (Ser2,5P)
  79. What modifies the CTD in the coding region in the terminating RNAPII?
    Ser5PPPase (Ser2P)
  80. What are the functions of transcriptional activator proteins and repressor proteins?
    interact with TFIID and/or mediator to promote the assembly of RNA polymerase and general transcription factors at the promoter region
  81. Transcriptional activation occurs when....
    a regulatory transcription factor binds to a response element and activates transcription.
  82. Transcriptional inhibition occurs when.....
    a regulatory transcription factor inhibits transcription.
  83. What could alter the structureof chromatin so that RNA polymerase and transcription factors areable to gain access to the promoter?
    Activators
  84. What is the function of the helix-turn-helix motif?
    DNA binding
  85. What is the function of the Zinc finger motif?
    DNA binding
  86. What is the function of the Leucine Zipper motif?
    Protein dimerization
  87. Explain how phosphorylation affects the function of the CREB protein.
    Phosphorylation of the CREB protein causes it to act as a transcriptional activator.
  88. The unphosphorylated CREB protein can still bind to CREs, but it does not stimulate..... .
    transcription
  89. An enhancer is a type of ________ element.
    regulatory
  90. Regulatory transcription factors bind to....
    regulatory elements
  91. An enhancer may cause the _____ regulation of transcription
    Up

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