Unit 4 - endocrine, blood, & heart

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Unit 4 - endocrine, blood, & heart
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2012-11-14 21:19:56
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anatomy physiology blood heart endocrine
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A&P unit 4 endocrinology, heart, and blood
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  1. the study of endocrine glands and hormones
    endocrinology
  2. a chemical substance produced in the body that has a certain effect on certain cells/organs
    hormone
  3. decrease in function in response to stimuli
    negative feedback
  4. increase in function in response to stimuli
    positive feedback
  5. increased intensity caused by the combination of two substances on an organism/cell
    synergistic effect
  6. the effect produced by two (or more) contrasting substances on an organism/cell
    antagonistic effect
  7. abnormally low activity in the thyroid gland
    hypothyroidism
  8. overactivity of the thyroid gland
    hyperthyroidism
  9. swelling of the neck resulting from enlarged thyroid gland
    goiter
  10. deficiency of glucose in the blood stream
    hypoglycemia
  11. excess amount of glucose in the bloodstream 
    hyperglycemia
  12. when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin that is produced so that glucose in the blood does not get absorbed into the cell body
    diabetes mellitus
  13. diabetes that first occurs in pregnancy. (typically resolves after pregnancy but may have a higher risk for type II diabetes)
    gestational diabetes
  14. function of the endocrine system
    • ~maintain homeostasis
    • ~regulate metabolism
    • ~control growth & development
    • ~regulate reproduction
  15. ~secrete product into ducts
    ~local effect
    exocrine gland
  16. ~ductless
    ~distant effect
    ~secrete hormones into blood stream
    endocrine glands
  17. compare nervous/endocrine systems
    • NERVOUS                 ENDOCRINE
    • neurotransmitters          hormones
    • released at synapse      carried in bloodstream
    • slow effect                   fast effect
  18. two types of hormones
    nonsteroids and steroids
  19. ~fat soluble
    ~cross cell membrane
    ~bind to receptors inside cell
    steroid hormones
  20. ~not fat soluble
    ~cannot cross the cell membrane
    ~bind to receptors on the cell surface
    nonsteroid hormones
  21. Name that hormone...
    smooth muscle contraction, inflammation, fever, pain
    prostaglandin
  22. five endocrine glands
    • pituitary
    • adrenal
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • thymus
  23. what hormones does the pituitary gland secrete
    • oxytocin (OT)
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
    • growth (GH)
    • luteinising (LH)
    • follicle stimulating (FSH)
    • thyroid stimulating (TSH)
    • prolactin (PRL)
  24. what hormone does the thyroid gland produce
    • thyroid hormone (TH)
    • calcitonin
    • thyroxine (T3)
    • triiodothyronine (T4)
  25. what hormone does the parathyroid produce
    parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  26. what hormone does the thymus produce
    • thymosin
    • thymulin
    • thympoietin
  27. what hormone does the adrenal gland make
    • mineralocorticoids (eg. aldosterone)
    • catecholomines (eg. epinephrine and norepinephrine)
    • glucocorticoids (eg. cortisol)
    • gonadocorticoids (eg. androgens)
  28. function of oxytocin
    • uterine contraction
    • breast milk release
  29. function of antidiuretic (ADH)
    fluid balance
  30. function of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone
  31. function of prolactin
    breast milk production
  32. function of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    development of gametes (and follicle in female)
  33. function of luteinizing hormone (LH)
    development of gametes (and ovulation in females)
  34. function of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids
  35. function of growth hormone (GH)
    stimulates cell growth and division
  36. function of thyroid hormone (TH)
    increase metabolism
  37. function of calcitonin
    decreases blood calcium levels
  38. function of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    increases blood calcium
  39. function of catecholamines
    prolong fight-or-flight response
  40. function of mineralocorticoids
    regulate blood sodium and potassium levels
  41. function of glucocortoids
    particpate  in stress response
  42. function of gonadocorticoids
    stimulates maturation and functioning of reproductive system
  43. cause of dwarfism
    insufficient growth hormone (GH)
  44. cause of giantism
    overproduction of growth hormone (GH)
  45. cause of acromegaly
    overproduction of growth hormone in adulthood
  46. cause of diabetes insipidus
    • body does not produce agrinine vasopressin (AVP) or
    • body does not respond to antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  47. what is congenital hypothyroidism
    hypothyroidism from birth
  48. cause of myxedema
    hyposecretion of thyroxine
  49. cause of Grave's disease
    hypersecretion of thyroid hormones (TH, T3, T4)
  50. hormonal cause of diabetes mellitus
    hyposecretion of insulin
  51. type 1 diabetes
    • onset at any age
    • body not producing insulin
  52. type 2 diabetes
    • onset typically in adulthood
    • body not responding to insulin that is produced
  53. oxyhemoglobin
    A bright red substance formed by the combination of hemoglobin with oxygen, present in oxygenated blood.
  54. deoxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin not combined with oxygen, formed when oxyhemoglobin releases its oxygen to the tissues.
  55. erythropoiesis
    the formation of erythrocytes
  56. CBC
    complete blood count
  57. hemostasis
    stoppage of bleeding
  58. clot retraction
    the drawing away of a blood clot from the wall of a vessel
  59. fibrinolysis
    breakdown of fibrin
  60. anticoagulants
    drugs that suppress, delay, or prevent blood clots
  61. thrombosis
    the formation or presence of a thrombus (clot)
  62. embolus
    A mass, such as an air bubble, detached blood clot, or foreign body, that travels in the bloodstream and lodges in a blood vessel, thus serving to obstruct or occlude such a vessel
  63. hemorrhage
    escape of blood from a vessel
  64. hemophilia
    blood disorder in which the blood fails to clot
  65. transfusion reaction
    reaction of the body to a transfusion of blood that is not compatible with its own blood
  66. Rh factor
    Any of several substances on the surface of red blood cells that induce a strong antigenic response in individuals lacking the substance
  67. anemia
    A pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood (as in the amount of hemoglobin or size or volume of red blood cells)
  68. mononucleosis
    The presence of an abnormally large number of white blood cells with single nuclei in the bloodstream
  69. leukemia
    a malignancy of blood-producing tissues, characterized by proliferating immature white blood cells and infiltration of the spleen, liver, and other organs
  70. main functions of the blood
    • transportation
    • regulation
    • protection
  71. what substances make up the blood
    • white blood cells
    • red blood cells
    • platelets
    • plasma
  72. types of proteins
    • albumin
    • globulin
    • fibrinogen
  73. function of albumin
    • transport substances in the blood
    • maintain water balance
    • contribute to osmotic pressure
  74. function of globulin
    • transport lipids
    • play a role in immunity
  75. functions of fibrinogen
    • stops bleeding by helping clots form
    • key role in inflammatory response
  76. function of erythrocytes
    transport oxygen in the blood
  77. function of hemoglobin
    • transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
    • transport CO2 back from tissues to the lungs
  78. function of neutrophils
    first immune cells to arrive at the site of infection
  79. function of monocytes
    carry out the process of phagocytosis
  80. function of eosinophils
    perform phagocytosis
  81. function of basophils
    • phagocytosis
    • produce heparin
    • produce histamine
  82. function of B cells
    production of antibodies
  83. function of T cells
    assist in immune response
  84. function of platelets
    prevent bleeding
  85. where does erythropoeisis take place
    bone marrow of flat bones and in the ends of some long bones
  86. what are the five types of leukocytes
    • monophils
    • basophils
    • leukocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
  87. three steps involved in hemostasis
    • vascular spasm
    • platelet plug formation
    • blood coagulation
  88. name 3 anticoagulant drugs
    • warfarin
    • lepirudin
    • dalteparin
    • enoxaparin
    • danaparoid
    • alteplase
    • urokinase
  89. list the four blood types
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  90. universal recipient blood type
    AB
  91. universal donor blood type
    O
  92. list the four types of anemia
    • iron-deficiency
    • megaloblastic
    • sickle cell 
    • thalassemia
  93. what causes iron-deficiency anemia
    lack of iron
  94. what causes megaloblastic anemia
    lack of vitain B12 and/or folic acid
  95. what causes thalassemia
    congenital (mediterraneans mostly)
  96. what causes sickle cell anemia
    congenital 
  97. what is the function of the heart
    pump blood
  98. define pericardium
    membrane that covers the heart
  99. define pericarditis
    infection of the pericardium
  100. define cardiac tamponade
    when the heart is squeezed by fluid that has collected in the pericardium
  101. define atrium
    upper chamber of the heart
  102. define auricle
    ear-shaped appendage on either side of the atrium
  103. interatrial septum
    the wall between the atria
  104. define ventricle
    lower chamber of the heart
  105. interventricular septum
    the wall between the ventricles
  106. define heart murmur
    an abnormal sound of the heart
  107. coronary artery disease
    narrowing or blockage of arteries and capillaries that bring oxygenated blood to the heart
  108. define ischemia
    insufficient supply of blood to an organ
  109. define angina pectoris
    chest pain that occurs with activity
  110. define myocardial infarction
    gross necrosis of the myocardium due to blood supply being cut off
  111. EKG
    electrocardiogram
  112. arrhythmia
    variation from the normal heartbeat
  113. bradycardia
    slow heartbeat
  114. tachycardia
    fast heartbeat
  115. ventricular fibrillation
    rapid, uncoordinated, ineffective series of contractions in the lower chambers of the heart
  116. defibrillation
    when an implanted electrical device sends a shock to the heart to stop ventricular fibrillation
  117. cardiac cycle
    a complete cardiac movement, or heart beat, including systole, diastole, and intervening pause
  118. systole
    contraction of the heart during which blood is pumped into the aorta and arteries that lead to the lungs
  119. diastole
     the dilatation of the chambers of the heart that follows each contraction, during which they refill with blood
  120. pulse
     The rhythmical throbbing of arteries produced by the regular contractions of the heart
  121. cardiac output
    The volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart
  122. heart rate
    number of times the heart beats in a minute
  123. congestive heart failure
    failure of the heart to pump adequately resulting in weakness, edema, and shortness of breath
  124. name the three layers of the heart
    • endocardium
    • myocardium
    • pericardium
  125. name the 4 valves of the heart
    • mitral valve
    • pulmonary valve
    • aortic (bicuspid) valve
    • tricuspid valve
  126. which side of the heart is responsible for pulmonary circulation
    right
  127. which side of the heart is responsible for systemic circulation
    left
  128. 14 steps of pathway that blood travels through the heart and lungs
    • 1. superior vena cava
    • 2. right atrium
    • 3. right tricuspid
    • 4. right ventricle
    • 5. pulmonary valve
    • 6. pulmonary artery
    • 7. lungs
    • 8. pulmonary vein
    • 9. left atrium
    • 10. left mitral valve
    • 11. left ventricle
    • 12. aortic valve
    • 13. aorta
    • 14. back out into body
  129. what is the function of coronary arteries
    supply oxygenated blood to the heart
  130. what is the function of coronary veins
    carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart
  131. effects of CAD
    • fluctuation in blood pressure
    • heart attack
    • stroke
    • dizziness
    • edema
    • shortness of breath
    • chest pain
    • fatigue
  132. risk factors for CAD
    • male
    • older age
    • smoking
    • diet
    • lack of exercise
    • family history
    • race
    • diabetes
  133. function of intercalated discs
    join cardiac cells together
  134. where does the heartbeat originate
    sino-atrial node
  135. pathway of structures that the heartbeat spreads to
    • SA node ===>
    • walls of atria ===>
    • AV node ===>
    • His-Purkinje network
  136. artery
    carry blood away from heart
  137. vasoconstriction
    constriction of a blood vessel
  138. vasodilation
    dilation of a blood vessel
  139. anastomosis
    connection between two vessels
  140. aneurysm
     a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
  141. arteriole
    any of the small subdivisions of an artery that form thin-walled vessels ending in capillaries
  142. precapillary sphincter
    capillaries with a muscle layer which controls the flow of blood from the arterioles into the capillary bed
  143. capillaries
    very small vessel
  144. venule
    a small vein, especially joining capillaries to larger veins
  145. vein
    small vessels that carry blood to the heart
  146. venous return
    blood flowing back to the heart through the veins
  147. varicose veins
    abnormally prominent and swollen veins, especially in the legs
  148. blood pressure
    the pressure exerted by the blood on the inner walls of the arteries
  149. systolic blood pressure
    the pressure exerted by the blood on the arteries when the heart is in systole
  150. diastolic blood pressure
    the pressure exerted by the blood on the arteries when the heart is in diastole
  151. shock
    a life threatening condition marked by a severe drop in blood pressure resulting from a serious injury or illness
  152. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  153. foramen ovale
    an opening in the septrum between the right and left atria present in the fetus but closed at or slightly after birth
  154. ductus arteriosus
    a short broad vessel in the fetus that connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta and conducts most of the blood directly from the right ventricle to the aorta bypassing the lungs
  155. three layers that make up the artery wall
    • innermost - tunica intima
    • middle - tunica media
    • outermost - tunica adventitia
  156. normal blood pressure range
    120/80 and below
  157. prehypertensive blood pressure
    120-139 over 80-89
  158. hypertensive blood pressure range
    140/90 and above
  159. symptoms of shock
    • low blood pressure
    • rapid heart rate
    • rapid shallow breathing
    • cold, clammy skin
    • dizziness
  160. treatments for hypertension
    • healthy diet
    • physical activity
    • quit smoking
    • lose weight
    • manage stress
    • medication
  161. what does the hepatic portal vein do
    carry blood that contains digested food such as glucose, from the small intestine to the liver
  162. structures found only in fetal circulation
    • foramen ovale (closes)
    • ductus arteriosus (closes)

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