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(NYT "Two's a Crowd" Article)
The study of the spatial separation individuals naturally maintain in social and interpersonal situations, and how this seperation relates to various environmental, personal, social, and cultural factors.
what are the 4 zones of personal space from furthest to closest?
Public Space, Social Space, Personal Space, and Intimate Space.
What is a determinate of how much pysical space you are willing to put in between you and someone else?
One's closeness/how well you know them
Interpersonal distance within a conversation among two __(a)__will be greater then interpersonal distance with in a conversation among two __(b)__.
interpersonal distance (IPD) as a function of one's culture can be show that: IPD of __(a)__ < IPD of __(b)__ < IPD of __(c)__.
- (a) Venezualans
- (b) Americans
- (c) Japanese
When Japanese and Venezualans spoke their natural language their interpersonal distance(IPD) was __(a)__. However, when they spoke english their (IPD) had__(b)__.
- (a) expected in that Japanese prefered IPD to be considerably greater then the Venezualans
- (b) less of a difference in that the Venezualans showed a greater IPD then expected and Japanese showed a smaller IPD
__(a)__ is a larger determinant of interpersonal distance (IPD) then the __(b)__ of an individual.
- (a) Gender Identity
- (b) sex
Women who had a male walking toward her with __(a)__ had a very high avoidance magnitude, where as males who had a women walking toward him with __(b)__ had a very low avoidance magnitude.
(a) & (b) eye contact
With regaurds to impacts of music on Interpersonal Distance (IPD), people tend to __(a)__ closer spacing when exposed to happy music, and __(b)__ closer spacing when exposed to angry or scary music.
- (a) tolerate
- (b) not tolerate
What can we expect from a pt with amygdala damage when observing their tolerance of close Interpersonal Distance (IPD)?
pt will demonstrate a lack of discomfort at close distances.
What is the Trolley Dilemma?
A runaway trolley is headed for 5 people, who will get killed if it proceeds on its present course. The only way to save them is to flip a switch that will turn the trolley onto an alternate set of tracks where it will kill one person instead. Should you flip the switch?
What is the footbridge Dilemma?
Trolley threatens to kill five people. The only way to save them is to push a stranger off a bridge onto the tracks. He will die if you do this but his body will stop the trolley from reaching the others. Should you push the stranger?
what is the crucial difference between the Trolley Dilemma and the Foot Bridge Dilemma that accounts for people's tendency to treat these cases differently?
How do people with damage to their emotional processing system differ from normal people when making moral judgments? (e.g. footbridge vs. trolley)
Ppl with damage to emotional processing system (i.e. Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex) tend to take a more utilitarian approach to the judgement. (e.g. they will favor believe that killing one person to save 5 is always better and not be influenced by emotional
When encountered with a moral dilemma, after not endorsing an action (e.g. didn't open the door), which part of the the brain experiences lots of activity?
What roles do eyes have in approach-oriented
Intensity is greater with direct gaze. The higher the direct-gaze is with approach oriented emotions, the greater the intensity of those emotions.
From notes what are three examples of approach oriented emotions?
happiness, anger, joy
What are the effects of positive music on one's IPD?
comfort with closer distance
What are the effects of negative music on one's IPD?
comfort with further distance
According to psychology, what is a Moral Judgement?
Moral Judgments are rapid intuitive decisions and involve the emotional processing parts of the brain. i.e. we often can't explain to ourselves why something feels wrong
What are the 3 components of Evolutionary approach to morality?
- (1)emphasizes social nature of moral intuition
- (2)warmer view of human nature
- (3)explains the haphazard way that most people lead their lives without destroying dignity and choice
Patients with focal bilateral damage to __(a)__, a brain region necessary for normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions, produced abnormally __(b)__ patterns of moral judgments. Especially when asked to solve__(c)__personal moral dilemmas
- (a) ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC)
- (b) ‘utilitarian’
- (c) high-conflict
what are 3 example of avoidance-oriented emotions from notes?
shame, fear, sadness
With Avoidance-oriented emotion, what effects the percieved intensity?
Intensity is greater with averted gaze. The lower the direct-gaze with avoidance-oriented emotions the greater the intensity of those emotions
why can you get the amygdala to activate on a fear face but not on an anger face?
with anger face, there is low ambiguity with the threat.
if a threat is percieved to have Low ambiguity, what should we expect from the amygdala?
low amygdala activation
if a threat is percieved to have high ambiguity, what should we expect from the amygdala?
high amygdala activatione
the deep, often hostile resentment that one feels toward someone who has something that they want.
taking pleasure when those who you envy are brought down.
what happens to the brian when experiencing envy?
parts of brain associated with pain become active.
what happens to the brian when experiencing Schadenfreude?
parts of brain associated with pleasure become active
when characters possessed superior skills and were self-relevant → subject reported stronger envy and there was stronger __(a)__ activation. Similarly , stronger schadenfreude and stronger __(b)__ activation were induced when misfortune happened to envied person.
- (a) anterior cingulate cortex
- (b) striatum
verbal irony is...
nonliteral language that makes obvious a discrepancy between expectations and reality
what are 3 paralinguistic cues to sarcasm (vocal qualities of sarcastic speech )?
- increased range and amplitude of voice frequency
- higher emphatic stress
- caricatured lengthening of syllables
damage to __(a)__ due to __(b)__ (in the right hemisphere), causes loss of ability to perceive sarcasm. This area was thought to be important for detecting contextual background changes in visual tests. This information shows that it perceives __(c)__ as well.
- (a) right parahippocampal gyrus
- (b) semantic dementia
- (c) social context
literal-first models suggests that ...
irony can be detected only after the literal meaning has been processed and rejected.
parallel-constraint-satisfaction model suggests that...
cues are processed rapidly and in parallel and an ironic interpretations is considered as soon as there is sufficient evidence that it might be supported i.e. multiple cues for irony are considered in parallel
Explain the study that supports the parallel-constraint-satisfaction model
(1) children are taught to associate a smiling duck with “nice person” and a snarling shark with “mean person”. (2) children were presented with ironic and literal remarks.(3) after each remark, children were asked if speaker was like the shark or the duck and eye movement of children was recorded. (4) contrary to literal-first account, no evidence was found that children looked first at the “literal” response object. Instead children looked at the “ironic” response object supporting parallel-constraint-satisfaction model
What are the 2 kinds of processes to infer what someone else is thinking?
- (1) Social-perceptual processes
- (2) Social-cognitive processes
Social-perceptual processes are...
using nonverbal cues like eyes and bodily posture as a way of “decoding” ones mental state
Social-cognitive processes are ...
abstract reasoning about another’s mental state, such as goals & motives
the ability to decode other’s mental states evolved as biological imperative for detecting __(a)__ . This also reinforces group __(b)__.
- (a) deception
accuracy rating for judging mental state based off of eye expressions is higher among one’s own ___.
faux pas is ....
a french term meaning a “false step,”, and refers to a social blunder or indiscretion (behavior or speech that is indiscreet or displays a lack of good judgment)
if individual recognizes a faux pas they ___ that the speaker did not intend to hurt the listener’s feelings.
what are the questions in the faux pas test (4 questions and a control question)?
- (1) did someone say something he should not have said?
- (2) who said something he should not have said?
- (3) why should he not have said it?
- (4) why did he say it? what was his intentions?
- (control) what was the basic gist of the story?
people with lesions in the ___ were impaired in ability to infer intentions in faux pas test.
medial frontal cortex
Mind blindness is ...
an Inability to read cues to intuit what other people are thinking and Difficulty navigating basic social interactions
what is the defining trait of Autism, high-functioning autism, and aspergers?
all have defining trait of being mind blind
theory of mind is ...
The awareness that other people have beliefs and desires different from our own and that their behavior can be explained by these beliefs and desires
The ability that underlies theory of mind is called ...
what is the Mentalizing Test?
compute what another person will do on the basis of false belief. the Sally-Anne task. Anne knows where ball is but does sally? if you can mentalize, you can separate your own knowledge from sally’s and will say sally will think the ball is in basket instead of box.
a compromise of mentalizing results in ___.
- autism → unable to understand the concept of false belief
- e.g. unable to correctly answer sally-anne test into teens
empirical studies of mentalizing suggest that the ability to attribute __(a)__ is independent of __(b)__ e.g. individuals with autism can achieve __(c)__ but still make errors on tasks requiring __(d)__.
- (a) mental states
- (b) other abilities
- (c) high levels of education
- (d) mentalization
autistic children can use__(a)__ to prevent someone from attaining a goal, however are unable to use__(b)__ for the same purpose.
- (a) sabotage
- (b) deception
neural Components of mentalizing system:
- (1) superior temporal sulcus for detection of the behavior of agents and analysis of the goals and outcomes of this behavior
- (2) inferior frontal regions for representations of actions and goals
- (3) Anterior cingulate cortex/ medial prefrontal regions for representations of mental states and the self
4 pre-existing mentalizing abilities in human ancestors are?
- (1) ability to distinguish between animate and inanimate
- (2) ability to share attention by following the gaze of another agent
- (3) ability to represent goal directed action
- (4) ability to distinguish between actions of the self and others.
the analysis of __(a)__ in conjunction with __(b)__ allows us to make inferences about the interactions of that agent. Additionally ability to mentalize seems to have evolved from __(c)__.
- (a) another agent's behavior
- (b) the representation of our own mental states
- (c) dorsal action system
what is The Social Brain Hypothesis?
the computational demands of living in large, complex, societies led to selection for larger amounts of cortex in primates. i.e. more social interaction pushes evolution to increase brain processing size
What are the unwritten social rules and expectations of behavior that we all seem to know but were never taught? i.e. what is it that we can pick up on but people with aspergers are unable to do?
- (1) knowing when to talk and when to listen
- (2) knowing when to be honest and when not to be
- (3) knowing what bodily behaviors are ok in public and what ones aren't
- (4) knowing what questions may be awkward or inappropriate to ask
- (5) inferring people’s moods by their facial expressions and body language
what is learned mentalizing?
people with aspergers can learn social cues consciously. these people can understand mental states such as desire and belief in others despite impairments
in terms of mentalizing what does the eye tracking test show?
that normal people have spontaneous/natural ability to mentalize however people with aspergers do not have this abilityi.e. aspergers patients do not attribute mental states naturally, but they may be able to do so in explicit tasks through compensatory learning. test indicates that aspergers patients go through different mental steps when mentalizing. aspergers patients will look at box where ball was hidden
what evidence is there that aspergers individuals have trouble with body language not just facial expressions?
A study asked subjects if body position is fearful or neutral while in brain scanner. Results are that neurotypicals showed much more activation in fear detecting regions of the brain then their asperger counterparts
what were Rizzolatti’s Findings?
they were recording the neurons that would fire when monkey would reach out and grab foodAccidentally discovered that neurons also responded to similar actions observed in others → mirror neuron system
what is the mirror neuron system?
a system of neurons that respond to similar actions observed in others
A consequence of the mirror neuron system is the ...
The chameleon effect refers to...
- the nonconscious mimicry of:
- facial expressions
- i.e. one’s behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of the other’s in ones current social environment
perception behavior link referes to ...
the mechanism responsible for the idea that the mere perception of another’s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself
Experiment 1 for the Chameleon effect:
Session 1 - subjects had a 10 min interaction with 1 other participant (confederate; C1) during which they took turns describing various photographs.
Participants then repeated this photograph description task in Session 2- same task except with a 2nd “participant” (confederate 2; C2)
Confederates varied their mannerisms and facial expressions through interactions
What were the results of this experiement?
- participants were more likely to shake foot when confederate shakes foot.
- Participants were more likely to smile when their partner smiled, relative to when their partner maintained a neutral expression.
- more generally, participants were less likely to mimic, when their partner smiled, relative to when their partner maintained a neutral expression
Why do we mimic one another?
there is a consensus among researchers that behavior matching is related to greater liking and rapport between the interactants. And it promotes "pro-socail" bahavior. i.e. Mimicry occurs unintentionally and even among strangers.
Experiment 2: tests if behavior matching does increase liking and create a sense of smoother social interactions. One 15 min session with “participant” (confederate). Participants and confederate took turns describing what they saw in photographs. Confederates either mirrored the behavioral mannerisms of participant throughout the interaction (experimental/mimic condition), or engaged in neutral, nondescript mannerisms (the control condition). Once session was over participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. (a) how much did you like the confederate?(b) how smoothly did the interaction go? What were the results?
- (a) did they like the confederate? → mimic group(6.62) > no mimic group(5.91).
- (b) did the interaction go “smoothly” → mimic group(6.76) > no mimic group(6.02)
participants who were mimicked were __(a)__ and __(b)__ toward other people then were non-mimicked participants
- (a) more helpful
- (b) generous
beneficial consequences of mimicry were not restricted to behavior directed toward__(a)__ but included behavior directed toward __(b)__.
- (a) the mimicker,
- (b) people not directly involved in the mimicry situation
In the mimicry experiement 2. how many people picked up confederate’s pens?
mimic group(100%) > no mimic group (33%)
In the mimcry experiment 2. how many picked up someone else’s pens?
mimic group (84%) > no mimic group (48%)
In the Mimicry experiment 2, how many donated ?
mimic group (76%) > no mimic group (43%)
In the Mimicry experiment 2, how much did they donate?
mimic group (.79 €) > no mimic group (.38 €)
Social Power is...
an individual’s capacity to modify others’ states by providing or withholding resources or administering punishments. This capacity is the product of the actual resources and punishments the individual can deliver to others.
Within social power, resources and punishment can be...
- material i.e. food, money, economic opportunity, physical harm, or job termination
- Soical i.e. knowledge, affection, friendship, decision-making opportunities, verbal abuse, or ostracism
What 5 things determine power?
- individual variables → personality traits, physical characteristics
- Dyadic Variables → Interest in relationship, relative commitment
- Within-Group Variables → Authority/position/role, status
- Between-Group variables → Ethnicity, gender, class, ideology, majority/minority
How does reduced power affect cognition and behavior?
Reduced power, we propose, involves issues of threat, punishment, and social constraint. As a consequence, it triggers what we can call “inhibition-oriented”responses: things like negative affect, vigilance, attention to punishments, and inhibited behavior.
How does elevated power affect cognition and behavior?
Elevated power, we propose, involves reward-rich environments and freedom As a consequence, it triggers what are called “approach-oriented”responses: things like positive affect, attention to rewards, and disinhibited behavior.
What was the Cookie Study?
Four participants are put in a group situation, with one randomly chosen to be the group “leader.” While the meet, they are given a small plate of cookies to share. Does the “leader” eat more?
What was the Flirting Study?
Unfamiliar male-female pairs interacted as either equals or in a “power”condition where one of the pair had control over the extra credit points. Does power increase the amount of disinhibited flirting?
What was the result of The Cookie Study?
power only increased cookie eating in the female participants.
What were the results of the Flirting Study?
In this case, power only increased disinhibited flirting in the male participants.
What is The Social bonding Hypothesis?
Laughter is partly a result of evaluating some stimulus as funny, but that explanation is at best incomplete. Some people laugh when things are not funny, and the amount of laughter can vary widely even in response to a funny stimulus. The central hypothesis is that low power makes people inclined to laugh, possibly because laughter may generally serve to increase the chances of gaining social support and allies.
What is the "Low Power" Study?
Participants are brought into a room and individually interviewed. As part of the interview, jokes are told by the “interviewer”; some jokes are designed to be funny, some are designed not to be funny. In one condition, participants are told the the interviewer will award a cash prize to one of the days’many participants. This is considered the “low power” condition, in that the interviewer is in a position to confer money on the participant. In the control condition, participants are interviewed in exactly the same manner, and the same jokes are told, but the partcipants aren’t told about the prize. The big question: Does knowing about the prize affect how much people laugh during the interview?
What was the result of the Low Power Study?
For both kinds of jokes, people laughed more in the low power condition. i.e. Low power people laugh more.
What was the "Boss Study"?
Participants were asked to watch a videotaped introduction of someone they were told they would later be working with. As part of the introduction, the introducer made jokes; like the “low power” study, some were designed to be funny and some were designed to not be funny. Prior to watching the introduction, participants were told either that they would be the boss of the person being introduced (the “high power” condition), the underlying of the person being introduced (the “low power” condition), or the co-worker of the person being introduced (the “equal power” condition). The big question: Does your power relationship to the person being introduced affect how much you laugh at the jokes?
What were the results of The Boss Study?
For both kinds of jokes, bosses laughed less. i.e. Bosses laugh less at jokes.
The rich and powerful increasingly focus on __(a)__, powerless people increasingly focus on __(b)__ and become more inhibited.
- (a) potential rewards
- (b) costs
participants primed with __(a)__ were more likely than those primed with __(b)__ to draw an E on their forehead in a self-oriented direction, demonstrating less of an inclination to spontaneously adopt another person’s visual perspective
- (a) highpower
- (b) low power
__(a)__ participants were less likely than __(b)__ participants to take into account that other people did not possess __(c)__, a result suggesting that power leads individuals to anchor too heavily on their own vantage point, insufﬁciently adjusting to others’ perspectives.
- (a) high-power
- (b) low-power
- (c) their privileged knowledge
__(a)__ participants were less accurate than __(b)__ in determining other people’s __(c)__; these results suggest a power-induced impediment to experiencing empathy.
- (a) high-power
- (b) control participants
- (c) emotion expressions
power is associated with a reduced tendency to comprehend how other people __(a)__, __(b)__, and __(c)__.
- (a) see
- (b) think
- (c) feel
What is the The power-approach theory?
suggests that power increases goal-directed activity. As a result, the powerful act more and with greater variability than the nonpowerful.
Power leads not to a conscious decision to ignore other individuals’ perspectives,but a ...
a psychological state that makes perspective taking less likely.
__(a)__ participants were almost three times as likely as __(b)__ participants to draw a self-oriented E
- (a) High-power
- (b) low-power
Participants primed with __(a)__ made more errors in judging the emotion expressions than __(b)__ participants did
- (a) high power
- (b) control
Being creative requires both __(a)__ and __(b)__ thinking capabilities to differing degrees depending upon the nature of the problem.
- (a) convergent
- (b) divergent
Convergent thinking is...
the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity, for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests for intelligence.
Divergent thinking is...
a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.
being mimicked cues __(a)__ thinking, while not being mimicked cues __(b)__ thinking.
- (a) convergent
- (b) divergent