6. tissue invasion & metastasis: inactivation of E-cadherin
Identify the components of tumr staging, TNM.
T = tumor (size & invasion)
N = lymph node involvement
M = metastasis (0= no; 1= yes)
Define the stages of cancer (1-4)
Stage 1: localized cancer
Stage 2-3: regional invasion (N > 1)
Stage 4: metastatic cancer (M at least = 1)
What are the 4 modalities of treatment?
1. surgery (local)
2. radiation (local)
3. chemotherapy (systemic)
4. biologic therapy (systemic)
What is the treatment of choice for most solid tumors when possible?
Which modality of treatment destroys cancer cells in the early & some more advanced stages, helps eradicate cancer cells left behind by surgery and aids in tumor size reduction prior to other therapies?
Which modality of treatment is used for management & treatment of primary tumor & any metastatic disease?
What are the adverse effects of surgery for cancer treatment?
surgical complications, damage to surrounding tissue, possible metastasis
What are the adverse effects of radiation for cancer treatment?
irritation of the skin & tissue underneath, fatigue, infertility & secondary cancers are a possibility
What are the adverse effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment?