RNA Processing

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cooxcooxbananas
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183557
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RNA Processing
Updated:
2012-11-13 23:52:08
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  1. The 5' cap functions primarily in _______ but affects ___________.
    • Translation
    • RNA stability
  2. The PolyA tail is found on the ___ end of mRNA.
    3'
  3. The polyA tail functions in...
    • RNA Stability
    • Translation
  4. Splicing is..
    the removal of introns
  5. splicing is essential for...
    open reading frames
  6. What is editing?
    Changes some RNA sequences (Usually tRNA and mRNA) and makes them functional if necessary
  7. What is base modification?
    methylation
  8. What is the function of methylation/base modification?
    unknown
  9. Is base modifcation necessary?
    no
  10. Capping is found in all ...
    eukaryotic nuclear encoded mRNA
  11. In order for capping to happen, the cap needs to be on...
    RNA Pol II transcripts
  12. Structural genes are not always ______ with their functional mRNAs
    colinear
  13. Coding sequences within many eukaryotic genes are seperated by ________ that aren't translated into protein
    DNA sequences
  14. Coding sequences within many eukaryotic genes are seperated by DNA sequences that aren't.....
    translated into protein
  15. what are the three steps of GTP Capping
    • 1) RNA 5' triphosphate removes a phosphate
    • 2) Guanotransferase hydrolyzes gtp & gmp attached to 5' end of mRNA
    • 3) Methyltranserase attacks a methyl gmp to 3' end of nucleotide
  16. Caps are..
    methylated
  17. methylated caps of U-RNAs are recognized by...
    autoimmune diseases (rhemuatoid arthritis)
  18. Organelles in prokaryotes have no....
    Caps
  19. Why is capping in post-transcriptional RNA the very first step?
    because the capping enzyme binds to RNA pol II and caps mRNA at the 5' end immediately arter the mRNA leaves RNA Pol II.
  20. Poly As are found on all mRNAs except...
    histones
  21. Only _______ have polyadenylation
    mRNAs
  22. Histone mRNAs control their 3' ends in other ways than....
    polyadenylation
  23. the Poly A signal in multicellular eukaryotes is (base pair sequence)
    AAUAAA
  24. What enzymes recognize the PolyA signal in multicellular eukaryotes?
    enzymes associated with RNA Pol II
  25. PolyAs regulate the gene expression by which site is
    picked on open reading frame
  26. The two ways the genes can be regulate on the open reading frame is...
    • 1) Cleavage downstream at 3' end by endonucleases
    • 2) Poly A addition -> ~100-300 A's added by PolyA Polymerase w/ no template used
  27. Older RNAs have _______tails
    shorter
  28. The length of ______ is proportional to the shorter tails of Older RNA.
    PolyA
  29. The PolyA tail enhances....
    translation
  30. Even though the PolyA tail makes translation more efficient, it is not...
    necessary
  31. An exonuclease takes off 1 ______ at a time from the end
    base
  32. An exonuclease can take off base pairs 1 at a time from in what directions?
    • 5' -> 3' or
    • 3' - 5'
  33. An endonuclease cleaves...
    the middle of the RNA
  34. PolyA does more to protect _____ rather than the Cap.
    mRNA
  35. Eukaryotic rRNA is synthesized in the...
    nucleus
  36. Protein is made in...
    the cytosol
  37. Ribosomes as a whole are called ___S
    80
  38. The large subunit of 80S is
    60S
  39. The small subunit of 80S is
    40S
  40. The components of 60S are...
    • 28S
    • 5S
    • 5.8S
    • rRNA and proteins
  41. The components of 40S are...
    • 18S
    • rRNA and lots of proteins
  42. RNA Pol I transcribes...
    all rRNA except 5S rRNA
  43. After translation of rRNA in the cytoplasm, RNA proteins move back to the...
    nucleolous
  44. After translation of rRNA in the cytoplasm, RNA proteins move back to the nucelolous for assembly into...
    large and small subunits
  45. After translation of rRNA in the cytoplasm, what generally happens to the RNA proteins
    move back to the nucleolous to for assembly into large and small subunits
  46. The newly made subunits that were assembled in the nucleous after the translation of rRNA move back to the..
    cytoplasm
  47. The newly made subunits that were assembled in the nucleous after the translation of rRNA move back to the cytoplasm for...
    translation of other mRNAs
  48. RNA Pol II makes .....
    mRNAs
  49. RNA Pol II makes mRNAs for...
    ribosomal proteins
  50. What does RNA Pol III?
    5S rRNA
  51. What kind of elements are typically recognized in the Open Reading Frames?
    cis elements
  52. what are the trans factors of the open reading frames?
    • ribosomes
    • helicase (melts DNA BPs)
    • tRNAs
    • enlongation factors (eEF)
    • Initiation factors (IF)
    • Release factors (RF)
  53. what are the substrates of the open reading frames?
    Amino acids, ATP, GTP
  54. ATP is _____ in translation
    burned
  55. What are the five steps to Eukaryotic Translation?
    • 1) recognition of CAP by eIF4
    • 2) PolyA binding protein on PolyA tail associates w/ EIF4
    • 3) Incomplete ribosome with 40S, moves downstream to AUG
    • 4) 60S associates
    • 5) Translation initiation
  56. EIF4 IFs is responsible for recruiting ______ to the ribosomal initiation complex
    mRNA
  57. EIF4 IFs is responsible for recruiting mRNA to the...
    ribosomal initiation complex
  58. Eukaryotic mRNAs do NOT have a ______ sequence.
    Shine-Delgarno
  59. Eukaryotic mRNAs do NOT have a shine-Delgarno sequence, which is why they need ___ to help them bind to ribosomes
    IFs
  60. Eukaryotic mRNAs do NOT have a shine-Delgarno sequence, which is why they need IFs to help them bind to...
    ribosomes
  61. What kind of elements affect translation?
    cis
  62. the 2' Structure (stem/loop sequence) in mRNA located upsteam close to AUG causes 40S ribosomes to ....
    pause
  63. the 2' Structure (stem/loop sequence) in mRNA located upsteam  far from AUG causes 40S ribosomes to pause to give ___ time to associate
    60S
  64. the 2' Structure (stem/loop sequence) in mRNA located upsteam close to AUG causes 40S ribosomes to pause to give 60S time to....
    associate
  65. if the 2' structure is downstream and close to the cap, it will...
    block the binding of EIF4
  66. if the 2' structure is downstream and close to the cap, it will block the binding of EIF4 and ____ won't bind.
    ribosomes
  67. It is necessary for 5' untranslated region of sufficient length to be present is ____ bps and ______ of the CAP
    • Greater than or equal 40 bps (nucleotides)
    • upstream
  68. When is the mRNA destabilized?
    When PolyA binding protein can no longer bind close to shortened poly A tail
  69. When PolyA binding protein can no longer bind close to shortened poly A tail, the mRNA is ...
    destabilized
  70. RNA transcripts can be modified in a variety of ways, which include... (6)
    • processing
    • splicing
    • 5ʹ capping
    • 3ʹ polyA tailing
    • RNA editing
    • base modification
  71. RNA processing is when...
    The cleavage of a large RNA transcript into smaller pieces. One or more of the smaller pieces becomes a functional RNA molecule.
  72. RNA processing occurs for...
    rRNA and tRNA transcripts in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  73. RNA splicing is..
    The RNA is cleaved at two sites, which allows an internal segment of RNA, known as an intron, to be removed. After the intron is removed, the two ends of the RNA molecules are joined together.
  74. 5' capping is when...
    The attachment of a 7-methylguanosine cap (m7G) to the 5ʹ end of mRNA. The cap plays a role in the splicing of introns, the exit of mRNA from the nucleus, and the binding of mRNA to the ribosome.
  75. RNA splicing occurs where?
    • eukaryotic pre-mRNAs
    • rRNAs
    • tRNAs
    • few bacterial RNAs
  76. Where does capping occur?
    Capping occurs on eukaryotic mRNAs
  77. 3' PolyA tailing is...
    The attachment of a string of adenine-containing nucleotides to the 3ʹ end of mRNA at a site where them RNA is cleaved (see upward arrow). It is important for RNA stability and translation in eukaryotes.
  78. 3' polyA tailing occurs where?
    on eukaryotic mRNAs and occasionally bacterial RNAs
  79. RNA editing is..
    The change of the base sequence of an RNA after it has been transcribed.
  80. RNA editing occurs where?
    occasionally amond eukaryotic RNAs
  81. What is RNA base modification?
    The covalent modification of a base within an RNA molecule.
  82. Where does base modification occur?
    tRNAs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  83. Group I and II introns are removed by....
    self-splicing
  84. Pre mRNA introns are removed....
    via a spliceosome
  85. If  RNA Polymerase I were missing from a eukaryotic cell, what types of genes would not be transcribed?
    Ribosomal RNA (5.8S, 18S, and 28S)
  86. If  RNA Polymerase II were missing from a eukaryotic cell, what types of genes would not be transcribed?
    All of the mRNA and certain snRNA genes
  87. If  RNA Polymerase III were missing from a eukaryotic cell, what types of genes would not be transcribed?
    All of the tRNA genes and the 5S rRna genes
  88. how would eukaryotic transcriptional initiation be affected if TFIIB were missing?
    RNA polymerase would not be bound to the core promoter.
  89. how would eukaryotic transcriptional initiation be affected if TFIID were missing?
    TFIID contains the TATA-binding protein. If it were missing, RNA polymerase would not bind to the TATA box
  90. how would eukaryotic transcriptional initiation be affected if TFIIH were missing?
    The formation of the open complex would not take place.
  91. What does it mean to say that gene expression is colinear?
    A gene is colinear when the sequence of bases in the coding strand of the DNA corresponds to the sequence of bases in the mRNA
  92. Why aren't a lot of eukaryotic genes colinear?
    because they contain introns that are spliced out of the pre-mRNA
  93. How can you tell which strand is the coding strand?
    has TATAAT at 5' location in right orientation

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