AP Psychology Unit 5 Vocabulary

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AP Psychology Unit 5 Vocabulary
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AP Psychology Unit 5 Vocabulary
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  1. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
    Consciousness
  2. The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
    Circadian rhythm
  3. Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
    REM sleep.
  4. The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
    Alpha waves
  5. Periodic, natural loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
    Sleep
  6. False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
    Hallucinations
  7. The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
    Delta waves
  8. Non-rapid eye movemnt sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep.
    NREM sleep
  9. Recurring problems in failing or staying asleep.
    Insomnia
  10. A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
    Narcolepsy
  11. A sleep disorder characterized by temproary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
    Sleep apnea
  12. A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an apperance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, these occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
    Night terrors
  13. A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. These are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remebering it.
    Dreams
  14. According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
    Manifest content
  15. According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).
    Latent content
  16. The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
    REM rebound
  17. A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontatneously occur.
    Hypnosis
  18. A suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
    Posthypnotic suggestion
  19. A split in conciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
    Dissociation
  20. A chemcial substance that alters perceptions and moods.
    Psychoactive drugs
  21. The diminshing effect with regular ues of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
    Tolerance
  22. The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
    Withdrawal
  23. A phsyiological need to use a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
    Physical dependence
  24. A pshycological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
    Psychological dependence
  25. Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.
    Addiction
  26. Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
    Depressants
  27. Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
    Barbiturates
  28. Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and herion; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
    Opiates
  29. Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
    Stimulants
  30. Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
    Amphetamines
  31. A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
    Methamphetamines
  32. A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
    Ecstasy
  33. Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evokesensory images in the absence of sensory input.
    Hallucinogens
  34. A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).
    LSD
  35. The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, inducing mild hallucinations.
    THC
  36. An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
    Near-death experiences
  37. Sudden sleep attacks at inopportune times best describes...
    Nacrolepsy.
  38. Deep sleep occurs in which stage?
    REM
  39. Fruit juices, energy drinks, mints, soap, and soda have all ben kown to contain...
    Caffeine.
  40. The pineal gland's role in sleep involves...
    The production of melationin.
  41. Bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity while sleeping are called...
    Sleep spindles.
  42. Which of the following is least likely to occur as a reslut of good sleep habits?
    Decreased concentration.
  43. In addition to cocaine and heroin, what drug does the British government consider one of the most dangerous?
    Crystal meth.
  44. Stress-related disorders, asthma, and headaches have been successfully alleviated using...
    Hypnosis
  45. The three major categories of drugs include depressants, stimulants, and...
    Hallucinogens.
  46. Jarod's muscles are relaxed, his body is basically paralyzed, and he is hard to awaken. His sleep state would most likely be called...
    Paradoxical.
  47. The brain's own opiates are called...
    Endorphins.
  48. Slowed reactions, slurred speech, and decreased skill performance are associated with abuse of...
    Alcohol.
  49. What did Ernest Hilgard call a split between different levels of consciousness?
    Dissociation.
  50. Awareness of ourselves and our environment best describes...
    Consciousness.
  51. The brain's adaptation to a drug's chemistry, requiring larger and larger doeses to experience the same effect, is called...
    Tolerance.
  52. Mood-and-perception-altering substances.
    Pyschoactive drugs.
  53. Mental processes.
    Cognition
  54. What is one part of the dual processing that goes in our two-track minds?
    Our conscious awareness.
  55. Directs the spotlight of our awareness, allowing us to assemble information from many sources as we reflect on our past and future.
    Selective attention
  56. Sleeping, waking, and other altered states.
    States of consciousness
  57. In Latin, "about"
    Circa
  58. In Latin, "day".
    Diem
  59. A pair of grain-of-rice sized, 20,000-cell clusters in the hypothalamus. Signals that are sent here by proteins control the circadian clock.
    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
  60. How does the SCN does its job in part?
    By causing the brain's pineal gland to decrease its production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin in the morning or increase it in the evening.
  61. A sensation of falling (at which moment your body may suddenly jerk) or of floating weightlessly.
    Hypnagogic sensations
  62. Bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity.
    Sleep spindles
  63. What are the five reasons that sleep may have evolved?
    • 1. Sleep protects.
    • 2. Sleep helps us recuperate.
    • 3. Sleep is for making memories.
    • 4. Sleep also feeds creative thinking.
    • 5. Sleep may play a role in the growth process.
  64. Molecules that are toxic to neurons.
    Free radicals
  65. New research reveals this, that sleep is for restoring and rebuliding our fading memories of the day's experiences.
    Sleep is for making memories.
  66. "Numbness"
    Nacro
  67. "Seizure"
    Lepsy
  68. A neurotransmitter linked to alertness (also called hypocretin).
    Orexin
  69. Means "with no breath", and people with this condition intermittingly stop breathing during sleep.
    Apnea
  70. Children are most prone to ____________-another Stage 4 sleep disorder-and to ____________, conditions that run in families.
    Sleepwalking, sleeptalking.
  71. What is the function of dreams?
    • 1. To satisfy our own wishes.
    • 2. To file away memories.
    • 3. To develop and preserve neural pathways.
    • 4. To make sense of neural static.
    • 5. To reflect cognitive development.
  72. According to Freud, a dream's _________ _______ is a censored, symbolic version of its latent content, which consists of unconcious drives and wishes that would be threatening if expressed directly.
    Manifest content
  73. Researchers who see dreams as this believe that dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day's experiences in our memory.
    Information processing
  74. Some researchers speculate that dreams may also serve a ______________ function?
    Physiological
  75. According to one version-the ___________________ theory-this neural activity is random, and dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of it.
    Activation-snythesis theory
  76. Biological and psychological explanations of behavior are partners, not...
    Competitors.
  77. Explanation that dreams provide a "psychic safety valve"-expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content-a hidden meaning.
    Freud's wish-fulfillment theory
  78. Critical consideration of this dream theory is that it lacks any scientific support; dreams may be interpreted in many different ways.
    Freud's wish-fulfillment theory
  79. Explanation that dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories.
    Information-processing theory
  80. Critical considerations of this dream theory is that but why do we sometimes dream about things we have not experienced?
    Information-processing theory
  81. Explanation that regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways.
    Physiological function theory
  82. Critical consideration sof this dream theory is that this may be true, but it does not explain why we experience meaningful dreams.
    Physiological function theory
  83. Explanation that REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories.
    Activation-synthesis theory
  84. Critical considerations of this dream theory is that the individual's brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about the dreamer.
    Activation-synthesis theory
  85. Explanation that dream content relfects dreamers; cognitive development-their knowledge and understanding.
    Cognitive development theory
  86. Critical considerations of this dream theory is that it does not address the neuroscience of dreams.
    Cognitive development theory
  87. The ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possiblites.
    Hypnotic ability also reffered to as hypnotic "susceptibility"
  88. Advocates of this theory contend that hypnotic phenomena-like the behaviors associated with other supposed altered states, such as dissociate identity disorder and spirit or demon possession-are an extension of everyday social behavior, not something unique to hynosis.
    Social influence theory
  89. Hypnosis does not block sensory input, but it may block our...
    Attention to those stimuli.
  90. Hypnosis has caused a split in awareness.
    Divided-consciousnes theory
  91. The process of the user's brain adapts its chemistry to offset the drug effect, requiring the user to take larger and larger doeses to experience the same effect.
    Neuroadaptation
  92. What are the three common beliefs about addiction that are myths?
    • 1. Addictive drugs quickly corrupt; for example, morphine taken to control pain is powerfully addictive and often leads to heroin abuse.
    • 2. Addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily; therapy is required.
    • 3. We can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, but a whole spectrum of repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors.
  93. What mimic the effects of alcohol?
    The barbiturate drugs, or tranquilizers.
  94. When abusing these, which include heroin, a user's pupils constrict, breathing slows, and lethargy sets in, a blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety.
    The opiates
  95. When repeatedly flooded with an artifical opiate, the brain eventually stops producting its own opiates, the...
    Endorphins.
  96. Opiates include the...
    Narcotics, such as codeine and morphine, which physicians prescribe for pain relief.
  97. A prune-size frontal lobe region, an area that lights up when people crave drugs.
    The insula
  98. A crystallized form of cocaine.
    Crack
  99. Drugs that are also called psychedelics.
    Hallucinogens
  100. These molecules may naturally control pain.
    Cannabinoid receptors.
  101. Possible explanations of this include (1) A biological predisposition to both early use and later use, (2) Brain changes and taste preferences influenced by early use, and (3) Enduring habits, attitudes, activites, and/or peer relationships that are conductive to alcohol abuse.
    Possible correlations to early use and later use of drinking.
  102. What type of drug is alcohol?
    Depressant.
  103. Pleasurable effects of this drug is an initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition.
    Alcohol.
  104. Adverse Effects of this drug are depression, memory loss, organ damage, impaired reactions.
    Alcohol
  105. What type of drug is heroin?
    Depressant
  106. Pleasurable effects of this drug is a rush of euphoria, relief from pain.
    Heroin
  107. Adverse effects of this drug are depressed physiology, agonizing withdrawal.
    Heroin
  108. What type of drug is caffeine?
    Stimulant
  109. Pleasurable effects of this drug is increased alertness and awareness.
    Caffeine
  110. Adverse effects of this drug are anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doeses; uncomfortable withdrawal.
    Caffeine
  111. What type of drug is methamphetamine?
    Stimulant
  112. Pleasurable effects of this drug are euphoria, alertness, energy.
    Methamphetamine
  113. Adverse effects of this drug are irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures.
    Methamphetamine
  114. What type of drug is cocaine?
    Stimulant
  115. Pleasurable effects of this drug are rush of euphoria, confidence, energy.
    Cocaine
  116. Adverse effects of this drug are cardiovascular stress, suspicioiusness, depressive crash.
    Cocaine
  117. What type of drug is nicotine?
    Stimulant
  118. Pleasurable effects of this drug are arousal and relaxation, sense of well-being.
    Nicotine
  119. Adverse effects of this drug are hear disease, cancer.
    Nicotine
  120. What type of drug is ecstasy (MDMA)?
    Stimulant; mild hallucinogen
  121. Pleasurable effects of this drug are emotional elevation, disinhibition.
    Ecstasy (MDMA)
  122. Adverse effects of this drug are dehydration, overheating, depressed mood, impaired cognitive and immune functioning.
    Ecstasy (MDMA)
  123. What type of drug is marijuana?
    Mild hallucinogen
  124. Pleasurable effects of this drug are enhanced sensation, relief of pain, distortion of time, relaxation.
    Marijuana
  125. Adverse effects of this drug are impaired learning and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, lung damage from smoke.
    Marijuana
  126. The 24-hour cycle that regulates our daily schedule of sleeping and walking, in part in response to light on the retina, triggering alteration in the level of sleep-inducing melatonin.
    Circadian rhythm
  127. How many sleep stages in 90 minutes?
    Five
  128. Leaving the alpha waves of the awake, relaxed stage, we descent into transitional stage _ sleep, often with the sensation of falling or floating.
    Stage 1 sleep
  129. (In which we spend the most time) follows about 20 minutes after Stage 1 sleep, with is characteristic sleep spindles.
    Stage 2 sleep
  130. Follows Stage 2 sleep, together lasting about 30 minutes, with large, slow delta waves.
    Stages 3 and 4 sleep
  131. Stages 1, 2, 3, 4 are all...
    NREM sleep.
  132. Reversing course, we retrace our path, but with one difference: About an hour after falling asleep, we begin periods of this sleep. Most dreaming occurs in this fifth stage of internal arousal but outward paraylsis.
    REM sleep
  133. During a normal night's sleep, what periods of sleep shorten and lenghten?
    Periods of Stages 3 and 4 shorten, REM sleep lengthens.
  134. What does sleep deprivation cause?
    Fatigue and impairs concentration, creativity, and communication.
  135. This can lead to obesity, hypertension, a suprressed immune system, irritability, and slowed performance.
    Sleep deprivation

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