Intro and Glycolysis
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Purpose of Aerobic Cell Resp
to transfer energy from glucose or some other organic molecule to ATP; a cell stores energy in ATP
This transfer is done in approximately __ interconnected chemical reactions, i.e. a __. If all of the energy in glucose was released at once, it would be released in a quantity too alarge for the clel to use. By releasing the energy in small amounts, more can be used by the cell.
- biochemical pathway
In brief, when a glucose molecule interacts chemically with O2, what happens?
This is, in essence, __ of glucose. In the process, the chemical bond energy in glucose is __ and the cell __ it in molecules of __.
- the glucose splits apart and its atoms are regrouped into CO2 and H20
- "controlled burning"
What is the efficiency of Aerobic Cell Resp?
a molecule of glucose contains enough energy to make about 100 ATP molecules
When burned in a flask, what happens?
100% of the energy in a glucose molecule is released in the forms of heat and light
In aerobic cellular respiration, a cell typically banks only about __ of gluocse molecule's energy in __. Net yield is __ molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule respired. Most of hte remaining energy is __ and lost from the organism.
- converted to heat
Alhtouigh this efficiency may seem low, it is higher than most mechanical engines. For example, the efficiency of an automobile engine is baout __.
The entire process of aerobic resp., starting with glucose and ending with __, __, and __ occurs in three main stages: __?__
- Krebs cycle
__ is the most universal form of energy metabolism; it occurs in most, if not all, organisms and occurs in the __.
No __ is required for glycolysis to occur.
Glycolysis begins respiration by __.
__ chemical reactions are needed to accomplish this. Each molecule of __ contains __ carbon atoms.
- breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
BEcause two molecules of pyruvate contain less energy than one molecule of glucose, energy is __ in this series of reactions. That energy is used to drive two types of __ reactions: __?__
- 1) synthesis of ATP directly
- 2) synthesis of NADH+ H+ from NAD+, which shuttles electirons to the ETC; those electrons carry energy that is used to make ATP
Glycolysis will not continue without what?
supply of NAD+ and ADP
Net gain to cell per glucose molecule due to glycolysis
Glycolysis couples the exergonic reaction of __ to the ender gonic reaction of __.
- ATP to ADP and Pi
- glucose to another molecule
Nad+ to NADH is (oxidized/ reduced)?
In which step of glycolysis is heat lost?
In which steps is energy stored?
step six is first step and step seven
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