Oxidative Phosphorylation, Fermentation, Poisons

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Oxidative Phosphorylation, Fermentation, Poisons
2012-11-14 02:39:26
Cell Resp

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  1. Oxidative Phosphorylation occcurs in the __. 
  2. It consists of a series of molecules, most of them proteins called __. First one compound is __, then it is __ as it passes electrons to the next compound, which is __, and so on in a cascade. The electrons move from one compound to another down to the last moeclue, which is __. As the electrons move from one compound to another, they lose energy. All along the way, the __ in the cascade allow energy to be released in small enough amounts to be used by the cell.
    • cytochromes
    • reduced
    • oxidized
    • reduced
    • oxygen (final electron acceptor)
    • redox reactions
  3. The compounds which carry and donate electrons (plus their energy) to the __ are __ and __, produced in __, __, and __.
    • ETC
    • NADH
    • FADH2
    • glycolysis
    • linker reaction
    • Krebs Cycle
  4. Each molecule of NADH can produce __ ATPs.
    FADH2 can produce __.
    • 3
    • 2
  5. What is the chemiosmotic theory of ATP synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation)?
    • energy released as eletrons pass through the ETC is used to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane to the intermembrane space, setting up a H+ concetration gradient
    • H+ moves back into the matrix in response to its electrochemical gradient, but only at points where there are ATP synthases
  6. WHen NADH donates electrons to the ETC, it is __; this __ needed to keep glycolysis and the Krebs cycle going.
    • oxidized to NAD+
    • regenerates the NAD+ 
  7. Oxidative phosphorylation and the ETC will not occur under what circumstances?
    no oxygen being present
  8. Net gain of Oxidative Phos.
    • 28 molecules of ATP from NADH
    • 4 from FADH2
  9. Which molecule has the most energy? least? in between?
    • glucose most
    • NADH: 3 ATP
    • FADH: 2 ATP
    • ATP least
  10. What is the purpose of fermentation?
    to regenerate NAD+ to keep the biochemical pathway of glycolysis going so that the cell gains ATP when no O2 is present
  11. Where does fermentation ccur?
    in cytosol follwing glycolysis only if O2 isn't present
  12. Uses __ produced in glycolysis to convert the __ produced in glycolysis to either __ or __.
    • NADH
    • pyruvate
    • lactic acid
    • alcohol and CO2
  13. Lactic acid:
    - produced in __; some microorganisms
    - in higher nimals, it is carried by the __ to the __, where it's converted back to __.
    • animal cells
    • bloodstream
    • liver
    • pyruvate
  14. Alcohol (ethanol) and CO2
    produced in __, osme microorganimss
    reaction is __.
    • plants
    • irreversible
  15. True or False: in fermentation, no atp is produced
  16. Net gain of fermentation
    • 2 atp from glycolysis
    • NAD+
  17. Total ATP formed from substrate-level phosphorylation.
  18. Total NADH formed through glycolysis, pyruvate, and CAC
  19. Total FADH2 produced
    two (CAC)
  20. ETC yields:
    __ ATP/ NADH when produced inside mitochondrion
    __ ATP/ NADH when produced outside mitochondrion in glycolyis
    __ ATP/ FADH
    • 3
    • 2
    • 2
  21. Total production in aerobic respiration
    • 8 NADH (inside) x 3 ATP/ NADH= 24 ATP
    • 2 NADH (outside mitochondria) x 2 ATP/ NADH= 4 ATP
    • 2 FADH2 x 2 ATP/ FADH2= 4 ATP
  22. Total ATP yield
    4+24 (ETC)+ 4 (ETC) + 4 (ETC)= 36
  23. Anaerobic Respiration net yield
    two ATP per glucose
  24. Poisons can affect cellular respiration in the ETC. How?
    • ETC as rotenone binds to one of the electron carriers in first protein complex, preventing electron passage
    • ETC in third complex: by cyanide and carbon monoxide (block passage to oxygen)
  25. Proteins affect CR through inhibiting __.
    • ATP synthase
    • oligomycin blocks passage of H ions
  26. A third poison, called __, makes the membrane of mitochondria __>
    • uncouplers
    • leaky to H ions
    • DNP