Psychology 139 chapter 11
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The Third Force
Reaction against the deterministic nature of psychoanalysis and of the behavioral perspective.
The roots of humanistic psychology
Existential philosophy, and the experience of psychology
Key elements of the humanistic approach.
Personal Responsibility, living in the here and now, the phenomenology of the individual, and self-actualization and personal growth.
We are responsible for what happens to us. We choose to do things, we don't have to do thing.
Live in the here and now
The humanistic perspective tells us that we cant fully functions until we live our lives as it happens.
The Phenomenology of the individual.
Nobody knows you better than yourself
Self- actualization and personal growth
- We like to have to find a way to meet our needs, we don;t just want them given to us.
- Self-actualization= motivated to continue our development in a positive manner.
Carl Rogers-Conditions of worth and unconditional positive regard
Look it up
Carl Rogers-The fully functioning person
People who reach a sense of satisfaction with our lives.
Abraham Maslow-Hierarchy of needs (name them all)
- 5 basic categories of needs (some needs demand satisfaction before others)Bottom to top
- -Physiological Needs
- -Safety Needs
- -Belongingness and Love Needs
- -Esteem Needs
- -Needs for Self-actualization
-Hunger, thirst, air and sleep. The most demanding needs
Once physiological needs are met. Security, stability, protection, structure, freedom from fear.
Belongingness and love need
- 2 parts
- 1- the need to perceive yourself as achieving
- 2-the need for admiration and respect
Need for self-actualization
Living to our full potential
A lack of some need (hunger thirst)
Include unselfish giving of love to others and the development of one's unique potential.
Look it up
-misconceptions about the hierarchy of needs
-Some people don't work in this order of needs. some people need high self esteem before they can love someone.- the assumption that lower needs must be satisfied 100% before we can get to the higher needs.
The study of psychologically - healthy people
Maslow studies people who appeared to live a self-actualized life. They are less restricted by cultural norms and customs than the average person. Express desires freely.
Psychology of optimal experience
A state of happiness and satisfaction characterized by absorption in a challenging and personally rewarding task.
8 conditions under which "flow" is experienced.
flow = a unrestful demanding experience.
- -1- The activity is challenging and requires skill.
- -2- One's Attention is completely absorbed by the activity.
- -3- The activity has clear goals
- -4- There is clear feedback
- -5- One can concentrate only on the task at hand.
- -6- One achieves a sense of personal control
- -7- One loses self-consciousness
- -8- One loses a sense of time.
Optimal experience in everyday activities
Work gives us the feeling of accomplishment and enrichment. We experience more flow while working than off of work.
Living in the present, taking control of your life, the struggle and ongoing experience, rather than a definite goal.
Strengths of humanistic perspective
Strengths- an optimistic approach to life, focusing on the positive.
Impact on psychotherapy has been very important...
Making the client the center of therapy;
Incorporation of Rogerian techniques into therapy-
such as positive regard, empathy, self-disclosure.
Impact of fields of education and communication-
Teachers use Rogerian's techniques... focus issues that many of us address in our lives- fulfilling personal potential, living in the here and now, finding happiness and meaning-books by Maslow, rogers, and other humanistic psychology continue to sell in popular bookstores.
Criticisms of humanistic approach
- -The concept of free will is difficult to prove empirically,
- -The key concepts are poorly defined- what is "self actualization"?
- -These concepts do not lend themselves to empirical investigation.
- -Maslow's study of the psychologically healthy people was very subjective and based on general impressions, that he had of his friends, and of historical figures.
- -Applications of the principles of humanistic psychology may be limited to a narrow range of human problems. Also-some naive assumptions about human nature as being inherently good...
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