BI 253 Chapter 10
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What are the reactants in photosynthesis?
What are the products of a photosynthesis reaction?
Why does water appear on both sides of a photosynthetic reactions?
B/c water is used as a reactant & released as a product
What are 2 main pathways that occur in chloroplasts?
- Light reactions
- Light independent (Dark) reactions
Describe a light reaction? What drives it? Whats produced?
Reaction driven by light producing ATP & NADPH+H⁺
Why are dark reactions called such?
B/c they do not use light directly
How do dark reactions produce sugar?
They use products of light reactions & CO₂ to produce sugar
Light behaves as both a ___ & a ___ & is packaged in packets called ____.
Receptive molecules that absorb photon wavelengths in a visible range are called ____?
Colors that are absorbed by pigments (can/cannot) be seen where as colors being reflected (can/cannot) seen.
What are the main pigments in plants?
What are the 2 types of chlorophyll in plants?
- Chlorophyll a
- Chlorophyll b
What does the structure of chlorophyll look like?
Ring structure w/hydrocarbon tail
What 2 parameters determine if light can be used for energy?
- Can they be absorbed by receptive molecules
- Do they have enough energy to perform chem work required
Shorter wavelength → (higher/lower) energy
Longer wavelength → (higher/lower) energy
What happens to a molecule if a photon is absorbed?
The molecule is moved fr ground state to excited state
When a molecule moves fr its ground state to an excited state what actually happens?
e⁻ moves up the antenna sys & further fr nucleus causing it to be more chemically reactive
What does NAD stand for & what does it do?
- Nicotinimide Adenine Dinucleotide
- e⁻ carrier for cellular respiration
What does NAD look like when it is carrying e⁻ in cell resp? In photosynthesis?
What are the products of non-cyclic reactions?
What are the products of cyclic reactions?
Non-cyclic reactions utilize what photosystems?
I & II
Cyclic reactions utilize what photosystems?
What does photosystem I in a non-cyclic reaction do?
Utilizes light energy to reduce NADP+ → NADPH + H⁺
What is the chlorophyll at the ctr of photosystem I called & why?
P700 b/c it absorbs light at a wavelength of 700nm
Explain function of photosystem I in non-cyclic reactions.
- Photon hits P700, e⁻ become excited & avail
- e⁻ runs thru carriers & produces NADPH + H⁺ fr NADP
- P700 returns to grd by accepting e⁻ thru ETC fr photo II
Explain photo II in non-cyclic reactions.
- Photon hits P680, e⁻ becomes excited & avail
- Excited e⁻ enters ETC driven by Proton Motive Force
- ADP phosphorylated to make ATP
- H₂O split into e⁻, p⁺ & O₂ & e⁻ donated back to P680
What does photosystem II do in non-cyclic reaction?
Uses light to oxidize H₂O to produce e⁻, p⁺ & O₂
What chlorophyll is at ctr of photosystem II?
What process does photosystem I follow?
- Photon hits P700; e⁻ becomes excited & avail
- Excited e⁻ → binds to Ferredoxin → ETC
- ADP phosphorlated → ATP
- e⁻ fr ETC cycles back to P700
Where do "dark" reactions occur?
Stroma of chloroplast
An antenna sys plus membrane protein & any assoc accessory pigments are called ____.
Process of e⁻ transport in thylakoid membranes sets up charge separation whose potential energy is captured by chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP is called?
What are 3 pathways of dark reactions?
- Calvin Cycle
- C4 photosynthesis
- Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)
What are 3 processes in Calvin Cycle?
- Fixation of CO₂ catalyzed by rubisco producing 3PG
- Reduction of 3PG → G3P
- Regeneration of RuBP by ATP
What is formed by the Calvin Cycle?
What enzyme catalyzes the Calvin Cycle?
- Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/oxygenase
- AKA Rubisco
Light dependent reactions are driven by ___ & produce what 2 things?
Light independent reactions use light ___ & use what 3 things as reactants to produce ____?
- ATP, NADPH + H⁺ & CO₂
Light dependent & light independent reactions both occur in the ____.
What is the name given to receptive molecules that absorb photon wavelengths in the visible range?
____ are main pigments in plants & their structure looks how?
- Ring like structure w/hydrocarbon tail
Packets of light that behave as both a particle & wave are called what?
In a non-cyclic reaction both photosystems I & II are utilized to produce what 2 products?
In a cyclic reaction, photosystem I ONLY is utilized to produce what product?
What are 3 processes involved in the Calvin Cycle?
- CO₂ (catalyzed by rubisco) → 3PG
- 3PG reduced → Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)
- RuBP regenerated by ATP
During the Calvin cycle, how is G3P reduced to Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate?
3PG phosphorylated w/ATP & reduced w/NADPH
What is the reaction for the Calvin cycle?
CO₂ + Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP) → 3 phosphoglycerate
What is the final product of the Calvin Cycle?
Glucose & other organic compounds
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