Resp 180 Exam 3: Cerebrovascular Accident

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Author:
kjeidsness
ID:
183656
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Resp 180 Exam 3: Cerebrovascular Accident
Updated:
2012-11-14 15:49:14
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Resp180 respiratory disease
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Description:
An artery that supplies blood to the brain bursts or is blocked by a blood clot.
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  1. Define cerebrovascular accident
    • An artery that supplies blood to the brain bursts or is blocked by a blood clot. 
    • Within minutes, nerve cells damaged. Within hours die.
  2. Prevalence of cerebrovascular accident
    • Stroke: leading cause morbidity 3rd mortaility
    • 150,000 stroke deaths per year
    • Most common neurologic reason for hospitalization
  3. What are the non-modifiable risk factors of cerebrovascular accident?
    • Age: most important. Old high risk.
    • Sex: males
    • Family hx
    • Race/ethnicity: blacks- high BP, obese & cigs
  4. What are the modifiable risk factors of cerebrovascular accident?
    • Hypotension: second most important
    • Diabetes: obesity
    • High cholesterol: obesity
    • Coronary artery disease & other heart conditions
    • Smoking & secondhand smoke
    • Medications: birth control, anticoagulants & hormone replacement therapy
    • Heavy use of alcohol
    • Illegal drug usage: cocaine
  5. What are the types of stroke?
    Ischemic & hemorrhagic
  6. Ischemic stroke: what's the % and what happens?
    • 80% of all strokes
    • Blood clot blocks flow to brain
    • Symptoms minor: goes unnoticed
  7. What causes blood clots in an ischemic stroke?
    • 1. Atherosclerosis
    • 2. Atrial fibrillation
    • 3. Heart valve problems
    • 4. Endocarditis
    • 5. Blood clotting disorders
    • 6. Vasculitis 
    • 7. Myocardial Infarction

    • Other causes: Hypontension
    • Surgery on caotid arteries
  8. Hemorrhagic stroke: what's the % and what is it?
    • 20%
    • Bleeding inside the brain: intracerebral hemorrhage
    • Bleeding around the brain: subarachnoid hemorrhage
  9. What are the causes of hemorrhagic stroke?
    • 1. Uncontrolled hypertension
    • 2. Ruptured aneurysm
    • 3. Inflammation of blood vessels
    • 4. Blood clotting disorders: hemophilia
    • 5. Head or neck injuries
    • 6. Radiation treatment
    • 7. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
  10. What are the symptoms of stroke?
    • 1. Numb, weak, or paralysis
    • 2. Vision problems
    • 3. Confusion, speech impared
    • 4. Difficulty walking
    • 5. Severe headache
  11. Symptoms of hemorrhagice stroke only!
    • 1. Nausea & vomiting
    • 2. Neck stiffness
    • 3. Seizures
    • 4. Possible unconsciousness
  12. In an ischemic stroke, where do symptoms usually occur?
    opposite side of the body from the side of the brain where the blood clot occurred
  13. What is a transient ischemic attack?
    • Temporary interruption of blood flow
    • Before stroke
    • Symptoms sim. to stroke, disappear after 10-20 min. 
    • Warning sign of an impending stroke
  14. How long does it take until brain cells become damaged? So because of this what is critical?
    • 4 minutes
    • TIMING!
  15. What do you use to diagnose a stroke?
    • 1. CT: determine type
    • 2. MRI: small strokes
    • 3. EEG
    • 4. Lab work: CBC, liver & kidney funcion, clotting test & glucose
  16. Treatment overview for stroke?
    • Prompt. treatment
    • Rehab 
    • Quit smoking
  17. Initail treatment of Ischemic stroke?
    • Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA): dissolves clot
    • Antiplatelet & anticoagulantwithin 24-48 hrs
  18. Initial treatment of Hemorrhagic stroke?
    • Surgery: drain or remove blood in or around brain
    • Surgery: repair brain aneurysm
    • Surgery: repair abnormally formed blood vessels
  19. Tell me about stroke rehab? 
    • Critical for success
    • Stroke pts: 1/2 lose some independence & 20% dependent
  20. Prevention for a stroke:
    • Prompt treatments for TIAs
    • Control hypertension
    • Atherosclerosis: control cholesterol-take aspirin
    • Surgery: open blocked arteries

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