Resp 180 Exam 3: Pleural Diseases

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Author:
kjeidsness
ID:
183667
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Resp 180 Exam 3: Pleural Diseases
Updated:
2012-11-14 16:39:37
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Resp180 respiratory disease
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Description:
Fluid in pleural space
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  1. What is a pleural effusion?
    Fluid in pleural space
  2. How does a pleural effusion occur?
    • Fluid separates visceral & parietal pleura
    • Lung tissue compressed ---> atelectasis occurs
    • Decreased: venous return 
    • Decreased: cardiac return
  3. What are the characteristics of transudative Pleural Effusion?
    • From: pulmonary capillaries
    • Locatation: pleural space
    • Fluid: thin, watery, few RBC & protein
    • Pleural spaces=no part in formation of this fluid
  4. What are the causes of a transudative pleural effusion?
    • 1. Congestive Heart Failure- Left more likely
    • 2. Hepatic Hydrothorax
    • 3. Peritoneal dialysis
    • 4. Nephrotic Synrome
    • 5. Pulmonary Embolus
  5. What are the characteristics of exudative Pleural Effusion?
    • Develops: through inflammation of diseased pleural surfaces
    • Fluid: pus, WBC's, cell debris & thick protein
  6. What are the causes of a exuative pleural effusion?
    • 1. Malignancy
    • 2. Malignant Mesotheliomas
    • 3. Pneumonias- 40% have PE
    • 4. TB
    • 5. Fungal lung infection
    • 6. Diseases of GI tract
    • 7. Collagen Vascular Diseases
  7. What are the diseases of GI tract that can cause a exudative pleural effusion?
    • Pancreatitis
    • Abscesses
    • Esophageal perforations
    • Diaphragmatic hernia
    • Abdominal surgery
  8. What are the collagen vascular diseases that can cause a exudative pleural effusion?
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Rheumatoid pleuritis
    • Wegener's granulomatosis
    • Sjogren's syndrome
  9. What are some other pleural problems?
    • Empyema: pus in pleural space
    • Chylothorax: chyle in chest: neck/thorax traumas
    • Hemothorax: blood in pleural space
  10. What are the signs & symptoms of pleural effusion?
    • Increased: HR, RR, BP, C.O.
    • Decreased: chest expansion ----> chest pain
    • Cyanosis
    • Tracheal shift
    • PFT: RESTRICTIVE
  11. What are the signs & symptoms you can hear with pleural effusion?
    • Dry, non-productive cough
    • Decreased: tactile & vocal fremitus
    • Dull percussion
    • Dim. BS
    • Displaced heart sounds
  12. What are the ABG results of small & large PE?
    • Small PE: acute alveolar hyperventilation with hypoxemia
    • Large PE: acute ventilatory failure with hypoxemia
  13. What does the chest x-ray of PE look like?
    • Blunting of costophrenic angle
    • Depressed diaphragm
    • Possible mediastinal shift away from affected side
    • Atelectasis
  14. What is the tx. with PE?
    • Thoracentesis: leaning over table
    • Respiratory Treatment: O2, hyperinflate & poss. mech. vent

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