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What are 4 ways to control the season/start of estrus of sheep reproduction?
ram effect, light, progestins & eCG, melatonin
What is one way to control the cycle in sheep?
What are 4 ways to influence the ovulation rate in sheep?
flushing, sponges & ecG, Fecundin, Booroola gene
What is one way to control parturition in the sheep?
What is a silent heat?
- the first heat
- no behavior signs
- provides progesterone priming
What is the ram effect? and how long must rams be absent for it to work?
- brings a herd into cycling
- 30 days
What influences fecundity (amt of babies)?
- number of ova shed at astrus
- genotype, age, nutrition
Is a first time sheep mom more likely to have twins?
- no- rarely have twins in first pregnancy
- (5-6 yr olds = greatest chance)
What are the steps to influencing the amt of eggs with nutrition?
Food/Glucose (hypothalamus pulse generator neurons) --> more insulin -->more gonadotrophins --> more oocytes
In goats what are the 2 things that can control the cycle?
What are the 4 things in goats that can induce estrus/bring herd into season?
- buck effect
What is twin lamb disease?
- pregnancy toxemia
- twins/triplets reduce the space rumen has so the mom becomes hypoglycemic
What can be clinical signs in a sheep with pregnancy toxemia?
- hypoglycemic ketosis from fat metabolism
- CNS signs
- renal failure
When do we see pregnancy toxemia?
Last 6 weeks of pregnancy
How do we treat pregnancy toxemia?
- glucose & electrolytes
- insulin- so cells take up glucose
- feed high energy diet
- can be refractory
What is a cloudburst in goats? and how do we diagnose and treat?
- clouburst = pseudopregnancy
- persistant CL- so in anestrus
- uteruswith aseptic fluid
- DX= by ultrasound (B mode)
- TX= PGF2alpha
A "female" goat diagnosed with intersex has what?
- genetically a female (XX)
- normal vulva but enlarged clitorus
- short/atretic vagina
- can have a short penis or testeovaries
What breed of goats do we see intersex in?
- Saanen (all white)
- esp polled (no horns)
Is intersex more likely to happen when both parent goats are polled?
yes- so breed to horned bucks to avoid a problem
Name some organisms that cause infectious abortions in sheep?
- Chlamydia, Toxoplasmosis, Vibriosis
- Salmonellosis, Listeria, Brucellosis
How does infectious abortion in goats differ from abortion in sheep?
- goats have similar abortion agents
- less common than sheep
What are the more important causes of abortion in goats (compared to sheep)?
- Coxiellosis "Q fever"
- non-infectious are more important in goats
What is stress abortion in goats? What breed?
- genetic adrenocortical problem
Epididymitis in rams is due to what? what is affected?
- Brucella ovis
- Actinobacillus seminis
- testes and tubules affected
How long is the cycle in a sheep? in a goat?
- sheep= 17 days
- goat = 21 days
Who gets false pregnancies- sheep or goats?
How is pregnancy maintained in the sheep?
- placental progesterone
- proportional to # of placentas
How is pregnancy maintained in the goat?
CL maintains pregnancy