Pharmacology

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Author:
ldean68
ID:
183726
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2012-11-14 21:05:16
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antitubercular
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Description:
Pharm I
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  1. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    • Works b blocking activity of enzyme revers transcriptase
    • Promotes synthesis of new DNA molecules from RNA
  2. Protease inhibitors
    Work by inhibiting protease retroviral enzyme

    enzyme promotes brak up of chain of protein moleucles at designated points
  3. Antiretroviral Drugs
    Work against retroviruses such as HIV
  4. Antiretroviral Drug Names
    • Enfuvirtide
    • indinavir
    • Maraviroc
    • Nevirapine
    • Raltegravir
    • tenofovir
    • zidovudine
  5. Tenofovir
              (Viread)


    antiretroviral
    • NRTI's
    • Adverse:  lactic acidosis sever hepatomegaly
    • Used for HIV

    Oral use only
  6. Zidovudine
               (Retrovir)



    Antiretroviral
    • Azidothymidine (AZT)
    • first anit HIV medication
    • advers: bone marrow suppression
  7. Raltegravir
               (Isentress)



    Antiretroviral
    • Only drug in integrase inhibitors
    • Inhibits activities integrase enzyme
    • prevents integration of proviral gene into human DNA
    • used in pt with multidrug resistence replication
    • myopathy and phabdomyolysis immune reconstitutuion syndrome inflammatory response
  8. Nevirapine
                 (viramune)



    antiretroviral
    • NNRTI second class of antivirals indicated for treatment of HIV
    • used wuth NRTI's
    • well tolerated
    • Adverse: rash, feve, nausea, headache, abnormal liver function test

    Oral use
  9. Indinavir
            (crixivan)



    Antiretroviral
    • Protease inhibitor class taken in combo with other HIV meds
    • produces increases in CD4 cel counts and reductions in viral load
    • well tolerated
    • nephrolithiass (kidney stones)

    oral use
  10. Enfuvirtide
              (fuzeon)



    antiretroviral
    • newest class of antiretrovirals
    • fusion inhibitors
    • supress fusion process where by a virion is attached to ourter membrabe of host T cell before entry into the Tcell and then replication of virus
    • tx of HIV along with other antiretrovirals
    • only by injection
  11. Antiviral Drugs
    drugs that destroy viruses either directly or indirectly by suppressing replication
  12. Acyclovir
                (zovirax)



    antivirals
    • used to suppress replication of HSV-1 HSV-2 VSV
    • drug of choice for tx of both initial and recurrent viral infections
    • oral topical injection
    • adverse: nausea vomiting diarrhea headache burning when applied
  13. Amantadine
               (symmetrel)

    Rimantadine


    antiviral
    • amantadine- earliest antiviral
    • only active against influenza A
    • used phrophalactically and therapeutically

    • Rimantadine- has longer half life causes fever cns orthostatic HTN insomnia drowsiness lightheadedness
    • anticholinergic
  14. Ganciclovir
              (Cytovene)



    antiviral
    • Indicated for tx of CMV
    • used for herpes simplex shingles and chickenpox cytomegalovirus

    increase fluids
  15. oseltamivir   (Tamiflu)

    zanamir  (relenza)


    antiviral
    newest antivirals neuraminidase inhibitors

    • active against influenza A and b
    • shown to reduce duration of flu in adults by days
    • adverse: nausea diarrhea sinusitis
    • should start within two days of symptoms starting
  16. Ribavirin
             (virazole)



    antiviral
    • interferes with RNA and DNA synthesis and inhibits protein synthesis and viral repllication
    • inhalation form for treatment of severe lower respiratory infections caused by RSV
    •  oral form for hep C
  17. Helminthic Infections
    Worm infections
  18. Roundworm
    Enterobius
  19. mebendazole 
         ( vermox)


    anthelmintic
    • treatment for roundworm and a few tapeworms
    • oral
  20. Praziquantel
           (Biltricide)



    anthelmintic
    • primary anthelmintic
    • Tx: various fluke worms
    • tapeworms
    • ocular worm infestation

    • Cns and GI effects
    • dislodges worm using calcium
  21. Pyrantel
             (antiminth    reeses pinworm)



    anthelmintic
    • tx: for infection of roundworms ascariasis and enterobiases
    • no prescription needed
    • oral use

    Adverse: CNS GI rash
  22. Protosoal infections
    • Amebiasis
    • Giardiasis
    • Pneumocystosis jirovecii- exclusively in immunosupressed patients 
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Trichomoniasis  STD
  23. Pentamidine
            ( Nebu Pent, Pentam 300)



    antiprotozoal
    • mainly used for p. jirovecii pneumonia
    • tx: of other protozoal
    • inhibits protein nucleic acid  sym
    • pneumocyctosis

    prophalactically 

    Gi Renal failure, CNS resp
  24. Metronidazole
            (flagyl)


    Antiprotozoal
    • antibacterial activity
    • anthelminitic

    • Tx: trichomoniasis
    • amebiasis
    • giardiasis
    • anerobic bacterial infection

    interfers with DNA
  25. Atovaquone
           (mepron)


    antiprotozoal
    Tx: p. jirovecii pneumonia

    • oral use
    • adverse: CV hematologic integumentary GI

    inhibits mitochondrial electron transprot and syn reduction
  26. Pyrimethamine
          (daraprim)


    antimalaria
    structually related to trimethoprim

    adverse: GI fever increased bleeding
  27. Mefloquine
           (lariam)

    antimalarial
    • mild to moderate malaria tx
    • uesd prophalactically

    adverse: GI cns

    interactions with beta blockers
  28. Primaquine



    antimalarial
    one of few that can destroy malarial parasites while in exoerythrocytic phase (tissue phase)

    Adverse: GI headache nausea
  29. Chloroquine  (aralen)
    Hydroxychloroquine


    antimalarial
    classified 4-aminoquinolone

    antiinflammatory rxn used for RA and lupus

    preg c category

    GI CNS rash adverse rxn
  30. Myotic Infections



    antifungal
    aspegillosis- inhalation of soil affects the lungs

    candidiasis- affects blood and lungs

    Histoplasmosis- inhalation lungs
  31. Terbinafine
         (lamisil)


    antifungal
    only drug in class topioal

    superficial dermatological infections

    athletes foot ringworm
  32. Nystatin
         (Mycostatin)



    antifungal
    candidal rash (diaper rash)

    prophalactic for immunosuppresent persons.

    Oral or vaginal candidiasis
  33. Fluconazole
         (diflucan)


    antifungal
    many fungi tx

    Vaginal yeast infections 150mg one dose
  34. Amphotericin B



    antifungal
    tx: severe systemic mycosis

    pretreatment with anitpyretics antihistamines antiemetics

    contraindication: bone marrow transplant
  35. Streptomycin



    antitubercular
    antimycobacterial

    • tx of tb and mycobacterial diseases
    • Inhibits protein syn
    • ototoicity nephrotixicity blood dycaria
  36. Rifapentine
          (priftin)



    antitubercular
    • longer duration
    • clinical uses for tb

    inhibits protein syn

    red orange discoloration
  37. Rifampin
         (rifadin)



    antitubercular
    • used with other tb drugs
    • prophalactically
    • used in endocarditis

    oral or inj
  38. Ethambutol
                 (Myambutol)



    antitubercular
    • bacteriostatic treatment of tb
    • supresses RNa inhibits protein syn

    tb combo drug therapy

    • contraindicated: optic neuritis (vision loss) not in children less than 13
    • oral form
  39. rifabutin


    antitubercular
    • first line tb
    • commonly used to treat m. avium intracellular complex

    • turns body fluids orange color
    • HIV used
    • adverse: GI

    oral
  40. Pyrazinamide



    antitubercular
    bacteriostactic and bacteriocidal

    • used in combo
    • contraindicated: hepatic disease gout preg
  41. Isoniazid (INH)


    antitubercular
    most widely used tb drug

    prophalactic or active tb

    antacids reduces absorption

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