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what is the difference between teams and groups?
teams have purpose and requires interdependence
what are department teams?
share similiar skills, minimal task interdependence
multiskilled, produce common product/service or make ongoing decisions; leadership teams usually have tight interactive interdependence
task force (project)
temporary teams to solve problems
borrowing people; away from organ
communities of practice
bound together by shared expertise and passion; medical practices
what are teams?
- two or more people
- fulfill a purpose
- mutaully accountable for achieving comon goals
- perceive themselves as social entity
why do informal groups exist?
- innant drive to bond
- social identity: define ourselves by group membership
- goal accomplishment
- emotional support
what are the advantages of teams?
- make better decisions
- better information sharing
- higher employee motivation due to drive to bond, closer scrutiny of team members, and team members become benchmarks for comparison
disadvantages to teams?
- individuals are better and faster
- process losses: cost of developing and maintaining teams
- social loafing
- limit creativity b/c of fear of being judged
what is social loafing and why does it occur?
- people exert less effort when working in teams b/c:
- individual effort is hard to identify
- less likely to occur when task is interesting, team's objective is importnat or people that value team membership
how to make individual performance more visible?
- form smaller teams
- specialize tasks
- meaure individual performance
what is the team effectiveness model?
- managed and controlled through team charteres
- based on organizational and team environment, team design, team processes, team effectiveness
when is a team effective?
when it benefits the organiztion, its members (satisfaction of its members) and its own survival (maintain commitment of people without having people leave)
what are th components of organization and team environment
- organizational structure (flourishes around work processes b/c increases interaction and interdependence)
- organizational leadership
- physical space
what are components of team design that create effective teams?
- task characteristics are complex and can be divided into more specialized roles and requires interdependence of members
- team size: small enough to be able to get to know their team members (trust), more engaged, more influence on norms and goals, feel more responsible for successes and failures
- team composition: must be able and willing to perform owrk in a team environment; be a team player
what are the five C's to effective team members?
- cooperating: share resources and accommodate others
- coordinating: align work with others, keep team on track
- communicating: share information freely, efficiently and respectfully, willing to listen
- comforting: show empathy
- conflict resolving: diagnose conflict
what is team processes that create effective teams?
- team development
- team norms
- team cohesiveness
- team trust
what are the different types of team interdependence?
- pooled: shares common resource, but otherwise independent
- sequential interdependce: output of one person beocmes direct input for another
- reciporcal: work output is exchanged back and force among indivduals
what are disadvantages to diversity of team composition?
- more susceptible to faultlines
- increased risk of dysfunctional confllict
- takes longer to be high performing team
what are the stages of team development?
- forming: est. boundaries, testing and orientation
- storming: compete for roles, est. norms of behavior
- norming: first sense of cohesion, est. roles and team mental models
- performing: coordinate and resolve conflicts
- adjourning: wawy from tak orientation to relationship focus; team disbands
what are two central processes in team development?
- team membership information: transition from "them" to "us" team goals over individual goals
- team competence development: forming rountines with others; forming shared mental models
what does team roles and team building activities fall under in buidling effective teams?
what are team roles?
- a set of behaviors that people are expected to perform
- formal or infomal
- infomral roles realted to personal characteristics
what is team building?
formal activities intened to improve team development and function
what are the different types of team building?
- clarifying team's performance goals
- improve team's problem sovling skills
- improve role definitions
- improve relations
what are team norms?
informal rules and shared expectations team est. to regulate member behviors
how does norms develop?
- initial encounter
- critical events
- experience/values members bring to the team
- rewards/speaking out
what are ways to prevent dysfunctional team norms?
- state desired norms when forming
- select members with preferred values
- discuss counter productive norms
- rewards good norms
- disband team
what is team cohesion?
- degree of attraction people feel toward team and their motivation to remain members
- both cognitive and emotional process (feel collective sense of pride)
- exist when members make team part of their social identity
what are the influences on team cohesion?
- member similarity
- team size
- member interaction
- somewhat difficult entry
- team success
- external challenges
what does cohesion motivate employees to do?
perform at a level more consistent with team norms, but when team norms conflict with organization's team norms, high cohesion will reduce team performance
positive expectations one person has of another person in situations involving rish foundation of team cohesion.
what are virtual teams?
teams whose members operate across space, time, organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organization tasks
how are virtual teams made increasingly possible?
information technology and knowledge based work
how are virtual team made increasingly necessary?
- organizational learning (encourage use of share and use knowledge)
what are virtual team success factors?
- member need to be technology savvy, self leadership skills, emotion intelligence to decipher feelings of teammates
- flexible use of communication techonologies
- meet face to face
what are team decision making constraints?
- time constraints (production blocking)
- evaluation apprehension (others silently judging ou
- pressure to conform
- groupthink (value consenus at the price of decision quality)
what is production blocking?
- only one person speaks at a time in a group
- ideas are fleeting
- can't concentrate when listening to other's ideas
- concentrate on your own idea and not listening to others
what is constructive conflict?
people focus their discussion on the issue while maintaining respectfulness for others having different points of view
what are guidelines for team decision?
- encourage creativity
- team diversity
- no one dominates
- optimal team size
- effective team structures
- checks and balances