Vitamins

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Author:
Palmer2012
ID:
183755
Filename:
Vitamins
Updated:
2012-11-14 23:43:16
Tags:
Biochem Vitamins
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Description:
Biochem Vitamins
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  1. Vitamin A (Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic Acid, Beta-Carotene)
    • fat soluble
    • Active form= Retinol, retinal, retinoic Acid
    • Vision, maintenance of reproduction, skin, hair
    • Deficiency = Blindness
    • beta carotene transfers into vitamin A
    • TOXIC can increase fractures
  2. Vitamin E (alpha-Tocopherol)
    • fat soluble and antioxidant.  
    • Active forms = tocopherols
    • Antioxidant activity, Maintain integrity of cellular membranes
    • Deficiency(rare)= atherosclerosis, RBC fragility
    • not toxic
  3. Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol, Ergocalciferol)
    • Fat soluble
    • Active forms = 1,25-Dihydroxy-cholecalciferol
    • promotes absorption of calcium and phosphates
    • deficiency = bone defects, Rickets 
    • Not Toxic
  4. Vitamin K (Menadione, Menaquinone, Phylloquinone)
    • fat soluble 
    • Active forms = Menadione, Menaquinone, Phylloquinone
    • Blood clotting factor
    • deficiency(rare) = warfarin
    • Rarely Toxic
    • found in plants
  5. Isoprenoids
    • vitamins E and A
    • Ubiquinone
  6. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
    • antioxidant
    • regenerates vitamin E
    • deficiency = scurvy, poor healing, tooth loss, bone pain, heart failure
    • not toxic
  7. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    • water soluble
    • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
    • metabolism of AA fatty acids and carbs
    • activates B6 
    • not toxic, dark urine
    • Deficiency = eye skin problems, mouth inflammation
  8. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
    • water soluble
    • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
    • energy metabolism, digestion, healthy nervous system
    • synthesized from tryptophan
    • Deficiency = pellagra (4 D's) (Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death) (Alcoholics)
    • Not toxic
  9. Vitamin B6
    • water soluble 
    • Pyridoxy Phosphate (PLP)
    • cell growth, needed for more than 100 enzymes
    • Deficiency (rare)= anemia
    • TOXIC
  10. Vitamin B12 (cobalamine)
    • water soluble
    • 5'- deoxyadenosly-cobalamin
    • builds new proteins, RBC's, healthy nerves
    • deficiency = pernicous anemia , nervous system impairment
    • Not Toxic
    • first organometallic biological molecule (cobalt)
  11. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic Acid)
    • water soluble
    • Coenzyme A
    • energy metabolism
    • Deficiency = burning feet syndrome fatigue irritablility 
    • a carrier of carbon fragments such as acetate
    • Not toxic
  12. Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
    • Water soluble
    • Biotin lysine complexes (byocytin)
    • metabolism of carboyxlation-reactions
    • deficiency (rare) = (too many egg whites) long term antibiotics
    • not toxic
  13. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
    • Thiamine Pyrophosphate
    • carbon metabolism
    • deficiency causes beriberi, wernicke-Korsakoff
    • not toxic
  14. Folate (folic acid)
    • Tetrahydrofolate
    • normal digestion, developement of RBC's
    • deficiency = megaloblastic anemnia, neural tube birth defects 
    • Not toxic

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