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what is communication?
the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people
describe the communication process model
form message, enode message to receiver, who receives, decodes, form feedback and encode feedback bak to sender who recieves and decodes feedback
how to improve communciation coding?
- both parties have motivation and ability to communicate through channel
- carry same codebook
- share similar mental models
- sender is experienced (practice) at communicating the mesage topic
how has email altered communication?
- preferred medium for coordinating work
- increase communication volume
- reduce stereotype biases
- alters flow fo information within groups and t/o organization (can communicate with higher ups)
what are problems with email?
- communicates emotions poorly
- reduces politeness and respect
- inefficient for ambiguous, complex, novel situation, increases information overload
what is emotional contagion
automatic process of sharing another person's emotions by mimicking their facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior
what are the purposes of emotional contagion?
- provides continuous feedback to speaker
- increases emotional understanding of the other person's experience
- communicates a collective sentiment; sharing the experience
what is media richness?
medium's data carrying capacity (the volume and variety of information that can be transmitted during a specific time)
what are the components of high media richness?
- conveys multiple cues (verbally and nonverbally)
- allows timely feedback
- allows customized message (adjust message and style)
- permits complex symbols (use metaphors)
face to face
when should oe use rich communication media?
when situation is nonroutine and ambiguous
what is persuasive communication?
changing another person's beliefs and attitudes?
why is spoken communication more persuasive?
- accompanied by nonverbal communication
- immediate feedback (allows for adjustments)
- high social presence, receiver is more sensitive to message content and more motivated to accept the message
what are some communication barriers?
- perceptions (overestimate others understanding, our needs and expectations influence the signals we receive)
- language (jargon, ambiguity)
- information overload (info get overlooked or misinterpreted)
what are barriers to cross cultural communication?
- verbal differences (language, voice intonation, silence)
- nonverbal differences (interpreting nonverbal meaning)
what is the most effective way to get your message across?
empathize, repeat the message, use timing effectively, be descriptive
what is the process of active listening?
sensing (postpone evalution, avoid interruptions, maintain interest), evaluate (empathize, organize information), responding (show interest, claritfy message)