chapter 5

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chapter 5
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  1. Dalton believed believed elements are
    minute, indivisible particles called atoms.
  2. Dalton believed atoms of the same element are alike in
     mass and sizes
  3. Dalton believed Atoms of different elements have
    different masses and sizes
  4. Dalton believed chemical compounds are formed by the union of 
    two or more atoms of different elements.
  5. Dalton believed Atoms combine to form compounds in simple 
    numerical ratios (such as 1-1, or one to 2, or 2 to 3 and so on).
  6. Dalton believed two elements may combine in different ratios to form
    more than one compound
  7. Law of definite composition
    a compound always contains two or more elements in a definite proportion by mass
  8. Law of multiple proportions
    Atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound.
  9. What do the laws of multiple and definite composition state:
    1) the composition of a particular substance will always be the same no matter what its origin or how it is formed.

    2) the composition of different compounds formed from the same elements will always be unique.
  10. A law is
    a summary of observed behavior
  11. A model/theory is
    an attempt to explain the observed behavior.
  12. subatomic particles are
    electrons protons and neutrons
  13. what is the nucleus
    contains protons, neutrons and electons
  14. what's the atomic number
    number of protons
  15. isotope is
    valies in the loss or gain (#) of neutrons, but has the same amount of protons/atomic number.
  16. mass number is
    the neutrons+ protons=mass number
  17. mass of an electron compared to proton
    1/1837 amu, with neg charge
  18. mass of a proton
    1.673 X10^-24 g w/positive charge
  19. mass of neutron and it's charge
    1/1.675X10^-24 g, with  no/neutral charge
  20. Ion is
    an atom that lost or gained an electron (having +/- charge).
  21. Thomson's model of atom
    negative electrons are embedded in positive atomic sphere.
  22. Rutherford's model of the atom
    atoms are composed of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons which occupy mostly empty space.
  23. 6 parts of Dalton’s
    Atomic Theory
    • 1.Elements
    • are composed of minute indivisible particles called atoms.

    • 2.Atoms
    • of the same element are alike in mass and size.

    • 3.Atoms
    • of different elements have different masses and sizes.

    • 4.Chemical
    • compounds are formed by the union of two or more atoms of different elements.

    • 5.Atoms
    • combine to form compounds in simple numerical ratios, such as one to one, two
    • to two, two to three, and so on.

    • 6.Atoms
    • of two elements may combine in different ratios to form more than one compound.
  24. Properties of electrical charges
    •Charge may be of two types:
    _______ and ______.

    •Unlike charges ________t (positive
    attracts negative), and like charges repel (negative repels negative and
    positive ______ positive).

    •Charge may be transferred from one
    ________ to ________, by ________ or __________.

    •The less the distance between two
    charges, the _______ the force of attraction between ______ charges (or
    _______ between identical charges).
    • •Charge may be of two types:
    • positive and negative.

    • •Unlike charges attract (positive
    • attracts negative), and like charges repel (negative repels negative and
    • positive repels positive).

    • •Charge may be transferred from one
    • object to another, by contact or induction.

    • •The less the distance between two
    • charges, the greater the force of attraction between unlike charges (or
    • repulsion between identical charges).
  25. Who discovered ions
    • Faraday discovered that certain
    • substances, when dissolved in water, conducted an electric current.
  26. Why did he call them ions
    • •He found that atoms of some
    • elements moved to the cathode (negative electrode) and some moved to the anode
    • (positive electrode).

    • •He concluded they were electrically
    • charged and called them ions (Greek wanderer).
  27. what were Rutherford's findings regarding uranium
    • He studied the emission of rays from uranium (alpha and beta rays:
    • •If a positive alpha particle approached close enough to the positive mass in the gold foil it was deflected.

    •Most of the alpha particles passed through the gold foil.  This led Rutherford to conclude that a gold atom was mostly empty space.
  28. Rutherford's contribution to understanding the atom:
    • •atom had a dense, positively charged nucleus.
    • •a light,negatively charged electrons were present in an atom and offset the positive nuclear charge.
  29. Chadwick’s contribution to understanding the atom:
    • •Chadwick’s
    • work in 1932 demonstrated the atom contains neutrons.
  30. How do these numbers relate to describing an element: 
    Top left, Bottom left, and element symbol.
    • *Mass number=top left (protons+neutrons),
    • *atomic number=bottom left/proton number,
    • *Element symbol=proton number

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