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- power is the capacity of a person, team or organiztion to influence others
- it is a potential use, people have power they do not realize, a perception
what are the sources of power
what are the contingencies of power?
substitutability, centrality, discretion, visibility
explain the zone of indifference
range within which people are willing to accept someone else's authority
which sources of powr operates upwards as well as downward?
reward and coercive
what is centrality?
- degree and nature of interdependence between powerholder and others
- it is a function of how many others are affected by you and how quickly others are affected by you
how can one increase power?
- social capital
- reference power
- visibility and centrality contingencies
what is influence?
any behavior that attempts to alter someone's attitudes or behavior
what is social capital?
knowledge and other resources available to people or social units from a durable netowrk that connects them to others
how does social networking increases one's power?
- receiving valuable info increases your expert power
- identification with people in their networks increase referent power
- networkers place themselves in strategic positions in network, gains centrality
what are the hard influence tactics
- silent authority
- information control
- coalition formation
- upward appeal
why are tactics called hard
force behavior change through position power (legitimate, rewards, and coercion)
what are soft tactics
- rely on more personal sources of power (referent and expert) and appeal to target person's attitudes and needs
- persuation, ingratiation and impression management and exchange
why does coalition formation work?
- pools power/resources
- legitmizes the issue
- power through social identity
what is persuasion
the ability to present facts, logical arguments, and emotional appeals to change another person's attitutdes and behavior
causes listeners to generate counterarguments to the anticipated persuation attempts, which makes the oponent's subsequent persuation attempts less effective
what is ingratiation?
any attempt to increase liking by or perceive similarity to some target person
what is compliance?
people are motivated to implement the influencer's request at a minimal level of effort and for purely instrumental reason; will not occur without external sources
people identify with the influencer's requet and are highly motivated to impolement it even when extrinsic sources of motivation are no longer present
what does the appropriate influence tactic depend on?
- influencer's power base (people with experitse tend to have more influence using persuasion)
- organizational position
- culture values and expectations