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2010-05-09 15:59:45
Evolution Final

evolution terms
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  1. Evolution
    A change that times place in a group of organisms over time, usually in gene frequency.
  2. Natural Selection
    • Any consistent difference in fitness (reproductive success) among phenotypically different classes of biological entities.
    • - 4 levels -> genetic, individual, population, species
  3. Creationism
    species are static and created by a higher source; against Darwinian science
  4. Uniformitarianism
    Lyell; idea that processes that created the earth are still happening today
  5. Catastrophism
    punctuated equilibrium; attributed new species in area to very dramatic event; assumed supernatural (like the flood)
  6. Progressionism
    thought life was wiped off the face of the earth and brought back more complex than before
  7. Natural theology
    Study of nature to get closer to the creator
  8. Divine Watchmaker
    theory that if something complex was found (like a watch) someone had to have made it and put it there
  9. Transmutation
    • Lamarck; theory that species became more complex because they want to
    • 1. environmental changes invoke changes
    • 2. changes in activity caused by needs
    • 3. changes in habitat result in more/less use of parts and bigger/smaller parts
    • 4. all changes are heritable
  10. Microevolution
    small changes with in a species
  11. Macroevolution
    causes big changes above the species level
  12. Significance of Darwin
    • 1. species can and do change overtime (NS)
    • 2. Man's place in the natural world
    • 3. helped to form scientific community separate from religion and politics
  13. inclusive fitness
    the fitness of gene measured by its effect on survival and reproduction of the organism and its genes borne by the individual's relatives
  14. kin selection
    individual favoring survival of those closely related
  15. Intrasexual selection
    • competition with in species -> males vs. males, females vs. females
    • - big secondary characteristics
  16. Intersexual selection
    • convincing opposite to mate
    • - bright colors, plumage...
  17. Ways to change gene frequency
    • 1. gene flow
    • 2. genetic drift
  18. Pre-adaptation
    • trait that is used for something and useful for something else later if that environment changes
    • ex. penguins "fly" with wings under water
  19. Founder effect
    • few individuals are taken from large founder population and are isolated until they produce their own population and look different over time
    • - why species look different on islands
  20. Biological Species Concept
    • - Mayr
    • species where interbreeding is possible but reproductive isolation occurs between other species
    • -exception - asexual, fossils, bacteria
  21. Modern species definition
    • genetically based, heritable change in a population or species
    • - not individuals
  22. Phylogenetics
    branching in tree, search for common ancestor
  23. taxonomy
    • hierarchy
    • - KPCOGS
    • Lineauus latin names
  24. character states
    • different features of organisms used to show relatedness
    • -morphological, genetic, embryology, physiology, behavior, biochemical
  25. pleisiomorphic
    • an ancestral state
    • ex. tail, 4 limbs
  26. apomorphic
    • a derived character state
    • ex. increased brain size
  27. monophyletic groups
    goal of phylogeny; a set of species derived from a single, common ancestor
  28. synapomorphic
    shared, derived traits; most helpful in determining phylogeny
  29. 3 reasons species look similar - william hennig
    • 1. uniquely derived character states
    • 2. ancestral character states
    • 3. homoplasious character states
  30. homoplasy
    trait developed from convergent evolution
  31. convergent evolution
    developing the same traits at the same time as other species after they split off
  32. autapomorphic trait
    multiple changes that occur with in one species/lineage
  33. molecular clock
    as time passes, you get mutations and changes in the structures of genes
  34. cladogenesis
    origination of branches
  35. anagenesis
    • changes that happen with in a lineage
    • -lumpers - include more individuals in few groups
    • - splitters - more groups in split
  36. homology
    • same trait developed from common ancestor
    • ex. forelimps
  37. vestigial characteristics
    • characteristics that are not used but are ancestral
    • ex. appendix, wings in birds that don't fly
  38. convergence
    • evolution of similar features independently in different evolutionary lineages
    • - by different developmental pathways
    • ex. vertebrate vs. octopus eye
  39. Geographic distributions
    • where species are located
    • ex. marsupials only in sa and australia
  40. intermediate forms
    • forms from ancestral states that still remain and haven't changed
    • ex. pelvis in snakes
  41. homoplasy
    • no common ancestor; traits that show up not because of common ancestor
    • ex. color, loss of trait, beak size
    • - leads to analogous structures -> bird and bat wings
  42. Batesian mimicry
    harmless mimics something poisonous
  43. mullerian mimicry
    • two toxic species that look alike
    • mimicry rings - protection for all toxic species that look alike from predators
  44. parallel evolution
    • have similar conditions that involve similar developmental pathways
    • ex. maxillped in crustaceans
  45. evolutionary reversal
    • resemble ancestor of another species
    • ex. frogs that have regained the character state of having teeth
  46. convergent
    share the same structure but derived by different developmental pathways
  47. parallel evolution
    same structure derived by same developmental pathways
  48. Mosaic evolution
    species evolve piecemeal; pieces of species change overtime and some stay stagnant
  49. endothermy
    • -body temp regulated inside (mammals)
    • -body temp regulated outside (reptiles, fish)
  50. saltationism
    quick jumps in evolution with short-terms of stability
  51. gradualism
    continuous, long-term stability; things change gradually with time
  52. individualization
    • bodies of organisms consist of modules, compartmentalization
    • ex. teeth in reptiles all look the same
  53. heterochrony
    • evolutional change in the timing or rate of developing events
    • -localized or large scale
    • ex. horns that keep growing (localized)
  54. paedomorphosis
    • maintaining juvenile characteristics through life
    • ex. salamanders
  55. peramorphosis
    • developing exaggerated adult features and maturity
    • ex. human brain
  56. allometry
    • differential growth in different parts of an organism
    • y=bxa
    • - exaggerated characteristics can result
  57. progenesis
    change in development time
  58. neoteny
    change in rate of development
  59. heterotrophy
    • change of where genes are expressed in the body
    • ex. light emitting organs
    • ex. photosynthetic stems
  60. adaptive radiation
    • rapid, divergent evolution of numerous related lineage
    • -not moving towards trend/direction
    • - see this at edge of species range/colony
  61. LUCA
    • last universal common ancestor
    • #1 on tree
    • ex. all living things use L a.a. isomers
  62. Miller-Urey experiment (1953)
    replicating conditions of early earth to try to form organic from inorganic substances
  63. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)
    stable, simple, could have been precursor to RNA
  64. Cenozoic
    • Quaternary:
    • 1. Holocene
    • 2. Pleistocene
    • Tertiary:
    • 1. Pliocene
    • 2. Miocene
    • 3. Oligocene
    • 4. Eocene
    • 5. Paleocene
  65. Mesozoic
    • 1. Cretaceous
    • 2. Jurassic
    • 3. Triassic
  66. Paleozoic
    • 1. Permian
    • 2. Carboniferous
    • 3. Devonian
    • 4. Silurian
    • 5. Ordovician
    • 6. Cambrian

    - precambrian
  67. endosymbiosis
    • structure derived from an organism within another
    • ex. chloroplasts, mitochondria
  68. background rate
    average rate of extinctions overtime, mass extinctions are spikes in background rates
  69. vicariance
    • separation/ barrier of population; speciation occurs because of separation or geological barrier
    • -null hypothesis
    • -split occurs AFTER separation of species
  70. Dispersal
    • when a population moves from an area where they do well to where they may not do so well (ex. seeds)
    • - dispersal model -> split occurs BEFORE separation of species
  71. Wallace Effect
    • island species
    • - flying animals are more capable of dispersal to islands
    • - human introduced species do well on islands
    • - species are related to mainland species
    • -endemic species on islands only found there
  72. Autochonthous
    group arises within a geographical region
  73. Allochthonous
    group arises from somewhere else (dispersal)
  74. Phylogeography
    • tracking lineages of genes based on geographical distribution
    • - can be used when no fossil record present
  75. Phylogeography for homo sapiens hypotheses
    • 1. Multiregional - archiac humans from africa, asia, eurp give rise, large diff between genes, alot of gene flow
    • 2. Replacement - archaic humans moved out of africa and dispersed, small diff in genes
  76. community convergence
    • similar in similar species
    • ex. birds have similar beaks if they eat similar foods
  77. Island Biogeography
    • - linear relationship between the size and distance of the island from the mainland and the number of species on the island; bigger islands have more species
    • far and small = smallest equilibrium
    • large and near mainland = largest equilibrium (constant rate of species)
  78. biodiversity
    number of species you find in an area and how they are distributed
  79. richness
    • - number of species
    • - how species are distributed
  80. singletons
    • species rise and go extinct at the same time
    • - just one fossil is found
    • ex. soft bodied animals
    • - usually excluded from species numbers
  81. pull of the recent
    greater tendency to find species that are new to the fossil record, looks like there's more diversity now because it's easier to count them
  82. diversification rate
    S-E = R
  83. density dependent/independent
    • dependent - biotic factors - predation, competition
    • independent - abiotic factors - weather, natural disasters
  84. volatile species
    • species with high turnover rates, high origination rates, high rates of extinction
    • - highly specialied
    • - low or variable population size
    • - low geographic range and dispersal ability
  85. adaptation
    change in response to surroundings, change for the BETTER from previous form, increase in fitness
  86. fitness
    ability to survive and reproduce
  87. red queen hypothesis
    species must evolve as fast as they can just to keep up with competitors and predators, to maintain the same level of fitness
  88. Cambrian Explosion
    all basic body types emerge during this
  89. Current extinction causes
    • H - habitat loss
    • I - introduction of exotic species
    • P - population (humans)
    • O - Overexploitation
  90. Lazarus effect
    species that was thought to be extinct shows up again
  91. opportunistic species
    take advantage of whatever resources they find
  92. disaster species
    species that do better after a disturbance
  93. Refugia species
    • species that persist in a certain place while others go extinct elsewhere
    • ex. species that live in deep ocean are unaffected by disturbance
  94. neotenic taxa
    • species can reproduce but still have larval form
    • -heterochrony
  95. tropical species
    -very prone to extinction bc rarely exposed to changes
  96. 3 tiers of extinction
    • 1. microevolution - change w/in a species population
    • 2. species selection - differential survival of species during "normal" times
    • 3. shaping of biota - dramatic change in higher taxa following mass extinctions
  97. niche
    ecological role that individual holds
  98. fundamental niche
    entire range of resources species can use, full range of environmental conditions
  99. realized niche
    narrowed niche than fundamental, most highly adapted area
  100. competitive displacement
    • extinction of a species because of competition, taking over a niche by competition
    • - much less common
  101. incumbent replacement
    • species takes over a niche of species that has gone extinct
    • - much more common
  102. key adaptations
    • trait that allows colonization of new niche, diversification
    • - ex. lungs, wings, amniotes
  103. adaptive zones
    • range of resources used by a group, set of ecological niches
    • ex. herbivorous insects
  104. sympatric
    • - located in the same place, interbreeding
    • - barrier separates them
    • - mostly separate but have a hybrid zone in between
  105. subspecies
    • a population of species that can interbreed but separated by a large distance
    • - speciation in progress
  106. subspecies clines
    a gradual change in allele frequency over a geographic distance
  107. Bergmans rule
    • increase in latitude brings increase in body size
    • ex. bears
  108. Allens Rule
    • longer limbs as you move towards the equator
    • ex. hares, humans
  109. Gloger's Rule
    • darker coloration in more humid climates
    • ex. skin color in humans
  110. Ecotypes
    mosaic pattern of character distribution
  111. Character displacement
    • species that live together look different, where they live apart they look similar
    • - niche partitioning
  112. Gene flow
    • change in genes among population or movement of gametes
    • -discrete population = islands
    • - continuous population = isolation by distance
  113. 4 mechanisms of evolution
    • 1. gene flow - homogenizes populations
    • 2. NS - adaptive
    • 3. genetic drift
    • 4. mutation
  114. Genetic drift
    • random change in allele frequency
    • - not because of fitness
    • - based on chance
    • - Kimura
    • - most important in small populations
    • - null hypothesis of change
  115. sample
    • those that survive and found in next generation
    • ex. snails and cows --> starting frequency is probability of becoming fixed and lost
    • allele is 20% -> 80% chance of loss, 20% chance of fixation
  116. Coalescence
    process of going back to a common ancestor through gene lineages
  117. random walk
    alleles can be fixed or lost in populations
  118. heterozygosity
    • WANT hetero. to be high in population to show diversity and variability
    • -more homozygous means low variability
  119. effective population size
    deals with number of individuals who are actually getting to mate and reproduce
  120. census size
    much larger than effective size, total number of pop.
  121. population bottleneck
    population is drastically decreased and leads to change in allele frequency
  122. neutral theory of evolution
    small proportions of noncoding DNA are affected by NS
  123. Trade-off
    • when species trade a benefit for a possible negative
    • ex. frogs who croak loader and longer get more mates but are also recognized by more predators
  124. teleological
    attributing purpose to something
  125. fitness
    • average, percapita rate of increase in numbers
    • - proportion of survival for offspring
  126. sexual selection
    type of NS, differences in reproductive rates
  127. inversion polymorphism
    base pairs get switched on chromosome and changes outcome of phenotype
  128. altruism
    helping the group at a cost to oneself
  129. Is trait adaptive?
    • 1. complexity
    • 2. design
    • 3. experiments
    • 4. comparative method
  130. ESS
    • evolutionary stable strategy
    • - type of behavior that can not be replaced by alternative
    • ex. hawk type of species
  131. Hamilton's Rule
    • rb> c
    • r= relatedness
    • b = benefit
    • c = cost
    • C must be less than the relatedness x benefit to be beneficial to organism