Neuroscience People

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  1. Snyder
    • Snyder found the opiate receptor
  2. Muller
    • Formulated the law of specific nerve
    • The bottom line for this law is that what we experience is what our nerves system got stimulated
    • We code for modality – code for what part of the sensory system is
    • However this is not a very valid law because now we know that there are other nerve fibers in a specific nerve that carries other information

  3. Carl Pfaffmann
    The first person who was willing to study taste neuology
  4. Ralph Norgreen
    • Rockefeller University
    • Use different techniques to study taste
    • 2-DG injected in animal --> dissection --> study taste path
  5. Sue Kennamon
    Worked with Mudpuppy in the Sour and salty taste experiment
  6. Hoon et al.
    • Started experiments of bitter taste with rodents in 1999
    • Utilized some advanced techniques used in the olfactory system study developed by Linda Buck
    • T2Rs - bitter
  7. Spillman et al.
    Approached the bitter taste question from a different way with the technique called rapid kinetics
  8. Bruce Halpern
    The study of transdution and firing rates
  9. Zhang et al.
    A group use molecular techniques to study transduction
  10. Roger (2006-2007)
    • Suggested that there might be two types of cells in taste buds
    • One groups consists of the true receptor cells (have only one response); the others are the presynaptic cells (distribute information to afferent pathways)
  11. Xu et al.
    • T1R2/T1R3 - sweet
    • T1R1/T1R3 - umami
    • T1R3 is associate to both of them
  12. Yamaguchi
    The woman who has done most researches on umami
  13. Pfaffmann
    • Took the fiber in the afferent nerve and the dissect out single axons, then found that either one of the single axons respond to multiple taste qualities.
    • in 1954, he proposed an article called "Accross Fiber Patterning"
  14. Marion Frank
    • Noticed the "Best response" - a cell fires fastest to a specific stimuli
    • Depends on the speed of the taste duction, the cell that combines information will decide te actual taste based on the different firing speed of actual input
  15. Jethier
    • Expert in fly studies
    • Gave apple juice, beer ... to test the best response
    • Found out that flies makes its best response when it is given pure sugar solution
  16. Gordon Shepherd (Yale)
    • Olfactory System
    • Dendro-dendrite synapses (interaction between cells)
  17. Getchill 1970s
    • Classic example putting an electrode inside and outside of the membrane
    • Found graded potentials, and cells respond to more than one distinct kind of stimuli
  18. Dolerin Lancet
    • Used rats and chemicals known as olfactory stimulus
    • Measured changes in cAMP (increase level)
    • Argued that transduction process must involve cAMP
    • Patch clamp recording
  19. Nakamura and Gold (1987)
    cAMP opens cation channels
  20. Early 1990, Reed
    GOLF adenylate cyclase
  21. Linda Buck (1991)
    • There must be a large family of protein receptors
    • Thousands of sense stimuli --> a large family of proteins would bind to G-proteins
    • No evidence for the olfactory system --> more information needed
    • Looked at sheep's olfactory epithelium --> put in proteins to attach to the molecules --> found that protein receptor molecules were organized in bands
  22. John Amoore
    • PhD thesis
    • Proposed 7 basic olfactory stimuli --> so there must be 7 basic smell receptors
    • "Stereochemical theory or odor"
    • He later gave up the theory, as he found more and more "basic stimuli"
  23. Max Mozell
    • Olfactory
    • Gas Chomatic Theory - 層析法
    • Proposed that the olfactory epithelium worked in a similar way. When you take in a deep breath, the molecules in the air would compete with each other. Mozell put electrodes in different areas of the epithelium – a band of cells would respond to one particular kind of molecules, another band would respond to another molecules - spatial/place coding
  24. Lancet
    • Olfactory
    • Use two kinds of stimuli (include the use of 2-DG)
    • Then sacrifice the animal, did anatomy in their brain - olfactory bulbs --> study the place coding in olfactory bulbs
    • Then use lesion to retest the behaviors
  25. Slotnik
    • Olfactory
    • Extremely good at doing lesion invervention
    • Assisted Lancet's experiment
    • Lesion made precisely in the 2-DG response area --> waited for recovery --> put animals to Skinner's box --> animal perform olfactory related tasks, given 2-DG --> animals were able to perform tasks --> response scattered everywhere, no specific cluster area anymore --> other cells take over the 2-DG processing responsibility
  26. Dick Vogt
    • Olfactory
    • Thought he got a protein that binds with the pheromones, but later found out that it was not
    • Olfactory Binding Protein (OBP)
    • Discover that the pheromone dissolved in OBP and goes into the cell
  27. Matt Rogers
    • Olfactory
    • Found a protein that binds to pheromones --> but later found that it was not a receptor either
    • Sensory neuron membrane protein 1 (SNMP1) --> a docking protein that help ligand get oriented and get binded to the receptor molecule
  28. Heiny Breer
    • Olfactory
    • Provide IP3 cascade on a millisecond basis
  29. Roeloffs
    • Olfactory
    • Took the pheromone secreted by the females and studied them.
    • He found that one pheromone usually have 3-4 compounds in it (up to 7)
    • Species-specific, Race specific
    • Geographical bands across the US
    • Special cage desing to trap male moths
  30. B. O'Connel
    • Olfactory
    • Worked with fruit moth
  31. Kaissling (German)
    • Worked with silk moth
    • 1-bombykol / 2-bombykal (one is alcohol, one is alberhy)
    • Bombykol got the male's wing fluttering, while Bombykal stopped the wing from fluttering
  32. Tom Bake, G.Carde, C. Linn
    • Worked with Oriental Fruit Moth
    • Built the wind tower to produce female pheromone plume to observe the male's behavior
    • Importantce of pheromone compound presicity increases when the stimulus intensity increases
  33. Hillberbrand
    • Studied the MCG
    • Put a male imaginal disc (later develop into the macroglomerular complex - MCG - only found in male) into a female lava --> use the female who have the implanted imaginal disc to do the pheromone plume experiment --> the female behaves like the way male does
  34. Tom Christensem
    • Made nice data from male MCG
    • Some MCG cells responded “best” to the whole pheromone blend; some respond “best” to one or another compound in the pheromone blend; some respond “best” to intermittent stimuli
  35. B. O'Connell, Mac Crides
    Did similar work with Hamsters' olfactory system
  36. Dodd - the perfumer
    • Unpublished human olfactory research
    • Took a putative male pheromone --> put it on a dentist's waiting room's chair --> females would go sit there more often
  37. Alexander Bell
    Invented dB (分貝)
  38. Von Bekesy
    Investigated basilar membrane with human bodies
  39. Wever and Brey
    • Experiment with the cat
    • Put an electrode on the cat --> one spoke to the cat --> the other one could hear what was spoken to the cat in another room with the microphone to the electrode
  40. Giovani and Venture
    • Blindfolded their participants, put them on a field, played flute or rang bells --> ask participants to distinguish sound directions from left, right, front and back (front and back had much lower accuracy)
    • Also found a deaf person as participant and found that he could also distinguish directions to some extend
  41. Raleigh
    Repeated Giovani and Venture's experiment, and found similar results
  42. Stevens and Newman
    • Repeated the experiment at Harvard
    • Used more advanced stimulus - electrode instrument
    • Further eliminated inventions
    • Found that sound frequency affect participants' ability to tell difference in location
    • Hi/Lo --> respond better; mid --> poor result
    • Two different mechanisms used in the process
  43. Strenger
    • German scientist
    • Designed a method to check whether a person was really deaf
  44. Rene Descartes
    • Dualism - body obeys to laws of physics, mind does not follow laws of physics; mind controls the body, but the body can also influence the other wise rational mind
    • Pineal gland
    • I think, therefore I am
  45. Sir John Eccle
    • Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
    • Topic of graded potential
  46. Roger Sperry
    • Split-brain research
    • Nobel Prize in Medicine
  47. Golgi
    Led large school of neuroscience
  48. Ramon y Cajal
    • The most famous neurologist of all time - neuro doctrine
    • Nobel Prize winner
  49. Galrani
    • Italian
    • Proposed the concept of electricity --> animal electricity in neuron and muscles
  50. Helmholty
    • Conducted experiment on the speed of electric signal along the nerve
    • Named Action Potential
  51. Bernstein 1902
    • Proposed change in membrane potential
    • Charge in concentration in ions across the two sides of the membrane
  52. J. Z. Young
    Used the giant axon from a squid (invertebrate)
  53. Hodkim + Husley
    Reported their study on the giant axon of squid
  54. F. G. Jonnan, 1924
    Theory of membrane Equilibria
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Neuroscience People
The Famous Neuroscience People Mentioned in Class
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