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When is puberty in gilts (female pigs no babies yet)?
When is the best estrus to breed gilts on?
How long does estrus last in the sow?
How long is the inter-estrus interval?
When is PGF2alpha refractory in the sow?
until day 12
What does boar exposure do for litter size and estrus?
- increases litter size
- speeds up estrus
When is ovulation after heat seen?
40 hours after estrus/heat
What does suckling and lactation do for cyclic activity?
- supresses it
- weaning earlier results in ovarian abnormalities
Do pigs have follicular waves?
no follicular waves
What is the pregnancy marker in the sow?
estrogen- its the signal for maternal recognition too
How many conceptuses are needed for establishment of pregnancy?
4 conceptuses needed
Pregnancy is maintained by the CL or the placenta?
CL maintains pregnancy
When is the best time to inseminate a sow?
- 8 hours before ovulation
- (therefore 12-36 hrs after estrus starts)
What percent of sows farrow at night?
How do you often know the sow is done with parturition?
she stands and urinates
What is the normal stillbirth rate in farrowings? when is the rate increased?
- 3-6% stillbirths= normal
- increased rate in litter size <4 and >14
What are some signs that farrowing is near?
- milk release ~24 hrs before
- nesting, relaxing vulva
What is the procedure for using prostaglandins to induce farrowing?
- inject 2-3 days before you want farrowing
- they farrow 24-36 hrs after injection
- safe after day 110
What are the two most common reasons for pig dystocia?
If abortion occurs before 35 days what happens?
resorption becuse this is before skeletalization
What happens if abortion occurs after 35 days?
mummification = >35d gestation
The viral causes of abortion often result in what?
- (remember this is sterile)
There are 3 groups of infectious infertility- what is Group 1?
- (staph, strep, Erysipelothrix, Eperythrozoon, Arcanobacter, salmonella, pasteurella, fungi, escheria)
What is Group 2 of infectious infertility?
- contagious causes
- (teschoviruses, porcine parvovirus)
What is group 3 of infectious infertility?
- significant diseases- some are zoonotic
- control by slaughter or vaccination
- (PRRS, African Swine fever, Hog Cholera, Brucellosis, lepto, venereal, Aujesky's)
PRRS is otherwise known as what disease?
"Blue eared pig disease"
Is Autumn Abortion Syndrome infectious?
No- this is a non infectious cause of infertility
Why does Autumn Abortion Syndrome occur?when does it happen?
- unknown cause- could be many things
- from Sept-Dec from 30-110days gestation
What are the clinical signs and pathologic lesions with Autumn abortion syndrome?
- no clinical signs
- no pathological lesions
Is there such a thing as too much nutrition?
YES- a high plane of nutrition can decrease alive ambryps and decrease their survival
What is the average weaning to estrus interval?
3-14 days (aim for 7 days)
What effects the weaning to estrus interval?
boar, lactation length, suckling, removing the biggest piglets, nutrition, genetics, light ect
What is split weaning?
- removing the heaviest piglets from nursing on the sow therefore weaning them first
- helps the milk stress on the mom
What are some similar signs to Hypogalactia?
- MMA= metritis, mastitis, agalactia
What are some causes of hypogalactia?
- coliform mastitis
- uterine infections
What are some risk factors for sows to get hypogalactia?
- fat sows
- urinary infections
What are some clinical signs of hypogalactia?
- not eating
- vulvular dischage
- pyrexia >103 F
- delayed parturition
How can I treat hypogalactia?
- Grem neg antibiotics
- induce parturition
What do the piglets look like from a hypogalactic sow?
- weight loss later
- increased mortality
- diarrhea and restlessness in first 3 days