ESCI 3102

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ESCI 3102
2012-11-15 14:36:10
exam two

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  1. What is a fixed charge
    Equity, Debt,Taxes
  2. Busbar cost
    cost per unit of energy
  3. What are O&M charges
    Operating and Maintenance costs
  4. What is a rule-of-thumb fixed charge rate for large energy projects
  5. What energy sector is regulated by state regulatory commissions
  6. Increased revenues are necessary to cover what types of expenses related to a project
    Fixed costs
  7. Why is capacity factor important in calculating busbar costs
    the percent of energy generation
  8. Can you describe “busbar” and its importance in the grid
    cost per unit of energy at the point where the generator interconnects with the grid
  9. How does inflation affect annual project cash flow estimates
    increases the cost of a project over time
  10. What are the two primary sources of capital for large projects
    • direct costs
    • indirect costs
  11. How is a weighted cost of capital determined
    The weighted cost of the total investment of capital is  (percent of investment) X (bank interest) plus (percent of Investment) X (loan interest)
  12. Why are accurate project cost estimates important
    • Profitability (cost/benefit analysis)
    • Valid comparison with alternatives
    • Provides timing of cash flows for financing
    • Assists with managing project
    • Management credibility with shareholders
  13. What is FERC
    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
  14. What guidance does FERC provide during estimation
    • account for construction and operating costs using a “chart of accounts”
    • FERC Uniform System of Accounts
  15. What is the name of the financial incentive that the US government offers to certain energy projects?
    Production Tax Credit
  16. What are the key initial steps you would take as the manager of a project
    • Identify your executive sponsor
    • Establish the project team
    • Interview and select consultants
    • Create specifications, evaluation criteria
    • Establish supplier, contractor contacts & teams
    • Executive contracts
    • Establish project schedule with critical path
    • Establish monthly cash flow budget
  17. What is a project’s critical path
    minimum length required
  18. What are the types of impact on the environment that arise from the conversion and transmission of energy
    • waste heat
    • effluents
    • sound
    • electromagnetic radiation
    • ionizing radiation
    • asthetics
  19. Energy competes for water with what other forms of socioeconomic activity
    agriculture, industry, municipal, & domestic needs
  20. Two U.S. federal rules, CSAPR and MACTS, regulate power plant air emissions. What are the names of these rules, and what pollutants does each address
    • Replaces Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR)
    • Applies to Plants >25 MW
    • Assists with National Ambient Air Quality
    • Targets SO2 and NOx

    • MACTS applies to mercury, hydrogen chloride, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)
    • Plants must reduce Hg by 90% relative to pre-control levels (April, 2015 deadline)
  21. What is the general trend over time of power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx
  22. What is the IPCC, and to what organization does it report
    • International policy for climate control
    • United Nations
  23. What significantly affects earth’s reflectance
    land/water ratio and cloud cover
  24. What significantly affects earth’s emissivity
    greenhouse gas concentration
  25. Regarding the formula for radiation heat transfer, what temperatures are used for the calculating the radiation power density from the sun and from the earth
    • 13 C, 286 K
    • 5800 K
  26. The sun’s radiation is received in the visible part of the spectrum and reradiated in what part of the electromagnetic spectrum
  27. According to Wien’s Law, in what way does increasing the temperature of a blackbody radiator change the peak wavelength at which the object radiates
  28. What are the three categories of biomass fuels
    • Wood and Wood Waste
    • Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Landfill Gas
    • Biofuels
  29. Of the total biomass consumed annually, about what fraction is devoted to electric generation
  30. Of the solar radiation penetrating the canopy, about what percentage is estimated to be stored through photosynthesis
  31. The heat of combustion of biomass is similar to what other fossil fuel
  32. What are the challenges of burning biomass
    • Water content
    • Non-organic content
    • Non-beneficial oxygen adds to bulk
    • Expensive to haul, low production density, competition
  33. What do the acronyms “MSW” and “RDF” represent
    • Municipal Solid Waste
    • Refuse Derived Fuel
  34. Can you describe how synthetic gas is derived from coal
    Coal heated without oygen
  35. What does IGCC stand for
    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle 
  36. What are the two cycles IGCC references?
    • IG-integrated gasification, Single Cycle (Brayton)
    • CC- combined cycle, Combined Cycle (Brayton+Rankine)
  37. Can you describe the three phases and the role of bacteria in producing biofuels
    • Solid- ferment (carbs, lipids,  protiens)
    • Liquid- Propionic, acetogenic, & acidogenic Bacteria (Fatty acids, glucose,amino acid)
    • Gas- Methanegenic Bacteria (organic Acids)
  38. How does the Btu content of ethanol compare to gasoline
  39. What is the Renewable Fuels Standard, and what sources are predicted to support increased biofuel production in the future
    cellulosic biofuels
  40. What challenges exist with transporting ethanol
    • where its produced vs needed
    • Ethanol Pipeline Challenges
    • Corrosion
    •  Affinity for water
  41. Definition: turbine
    • An energy conversion device
    • A device in which energy is transferred from a continuously flowing fluid by the action of one or more moving blade rows.
  42. Turbine types: Fluid
    hydraulic, wind, gas, steam
  43. Turbine Types: Direction of Flow
    axial, mixed, radial
  44. Turbine Types: flow process
    impulse, reaction
  45. Wicket gates
    direction of flow
  46. Turbines: speed
    constant – mass flow adjusted to produce desired output
  47. Pmech = τ * ω = m’(r1Vu1-r2Vu2)* ω
    • τ = torque
    •                 m’ = mass flow rate
    •                 r1, r2 = blade radius at inlet, outlet
    •                 Vu1, Vu2 = component of fluid velocity                 parallel to blade tip direction
  48. Euler equation
    • Pmech  =  m’(U1Vu1-U2Vu2)
    • Velocity of blade
    • Velocity of fluid
  49. Faraday’s Law: 
    quantifies induction of voltage by time-varying magnetic flux
  50. Synchronous generators
    identical electrical and mechanical frequencies
  51. Mechanical Energy Input
    dWmech = dWfield + dWelec
    • Increase in    +  Electrical Energy Output
    • Energy
    • Stored in
    • Coupling Field
  52. n = 120*f/p
    • n = # of rpm’s
    • f = elec freq in Hz
    • p = # of poles
  53. Line voltage
    measurement between two phases
  54. Phase voltage
    measured between phase and neutral