Unit 5 lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive

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Unit 5 lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive
2012-11-30 00:00:29
respiratory lymphatic digestive

unit 5 respiratory, lymphatic, and digestion
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  1. main functions of lymphatic system
    • drain excess interstitial fluid, filter it & return it to the circulatory system
    • transport fats from intestines to blood
    • carry out immune response
  2. treatments for edema
    • diuretics
    • fluid restriction
    • bed rest
  3. function of lymphatic capillaries
    run alongside blood vessels and act as drains for interstitial fluid
  4. function of lymph nodes
    filtration of lymph
  5. function of lymphatic ducts
    to drain lymph
  6. locations of lymph nodes
    • cervical
    • inguinal
    • axillary
    • mammary
  7. name the two ducts of the lymphatic system
    right and thoracic
  8. what does the right lymph duct drain
    • right arm
    • right head and neck
    • right side of thorax
  9. what does the thoracic lymph duct drain
    everything but the right arm, head, neck, & chest
  10. where does the thoracic duct collect lymph
    left subclavian vein
  11. where does the right lyphatic duct empty
    right subclavian vein
  12. Name the lymphatic organs
    • red bone marrow
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • spleen
  13. function of the thymus
    where T-cells mature
  14. function of the spleen
    • immune response
    • destroys old blood cell
    • store platelets
  15. function of red pulp in spleen
    • filtration and phagocytosis of blood cells
    • storage of red bood cells and platelets
  16. function of white pulp in spleen
    immune response to blood borne antigens
  17. function of thymus
    transform lymphocytes into T-cells
  18. function of tonsils
    trap bacteria and antigens
  19. Three types of tonsils
    • two palantine
    • two lingual
    • one pharyngeal (adenoid)
  20. what is the relationship between cancer & the lymphatic system
    cancer can metastasize through the lymphatic system
  21. pathway that lymph travels
    • fluid collected by lymphatic capillaries ===>
    • vessels===>
    • nodes===>
    • trunks===>
    • thoracic duct OR right duct===>
    • subclavian veins
  22. List structures involved in nonspecific defense (first line)
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • tears
    • saliva 
    • urine
    • acidic fluids (vagina, stomach, skin surface)
  23. List structured involved in nonspecific defense (second line)
    • natural killer cells
    • antimicrobial proteins
    • phagocytosis
    • fever
    • inflammation
  24. four signs of inflammation
    • redness
    • swelling
    • pain
    • heat
  25. what is the function of inflammation
    • trap pathogens
    • begin tissue repair
  26. what causes four types of immunity
    • naturally acquired active
    • naturally acquired passive
    • artificially acquired active
    • artificially acquired passive
  27. naturallty acquired active immunity
    get disease and recover
  28. naturally acquired passive immunity
    antibodies transferred from mother to fetus
  29. artificially acquired active immunity
    get vaccine
  30. artificially acquired passive immunity
    receive injection of antibodies
  31. what carries out cell-mediated immunity
  32. what antigen does cell-mediated immunity fight
    pathogen inside the cell
  33. what carries out antibody-mediated immunity
    T-cells and B-cells
  34. what antigen does antibody-mediated immunity fight
    pathogen outside the cell
  35. define lymph
    colorless fluid containing white blood cells and drains through the lymphatic system into the blood stream
  36. edema
    excess fluid collection
  37. lymphoma
    cancer of the lymphatic system
  38. nonspecific resistance
    bodily defense that protects us from almost any kind of pathogen
  39. pathogen
    biological agent that causes disease or illness
  40. phagocytosis
    process of engulfing particles
  41. fever
    abnormally high body temperature
  42. specific resistance/immunity
    immunity against a specific antigen
  43. antigen
    toxin or foreign substance that stimulates an immune response
  44. autoimmune disorder
    disease characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system
  45. plasma cells
    fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody
  46. memory B cells
    B-cell subtypes that are formed following primary infection
  47. antibodies (immunoglobulins)
    A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen
  48. IgG
    the main antibody defense against bacteria
  49. IgE
     involved in the expulsion of intestinal parasites
  50. hypersensitivity
    a state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to what is perceived as a foreign substance
  51. allergen
    A substance that causes an allergic reaction
  52. anaphylaxis reaction
    Anaphylaxis is an acute multi-system severe type I hypersensitivity reaction
  53. anaphylactic shock
    a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance
  54. opportunistic infection
    An infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but does so when lowered resistance to infection is caused by the impairment of the body's immune system.
  55. 4 types of T-cells
    • helper cells (assists other white blood cells in immunity)
    • cytotoxic cells (destroy infected cells and tumor cells)
    • memory cells (antigen-specific cells that remain after an infection has resolved)
    • regulatory cells (shut down T-cells at the end of the immune response)
  56. difference between HIV and AIDS
    • AIDS is active HIV
    • CD4 below drops below 200
  57. how is AIDS treated
    antiviral medications
  58. function of the respiratory system
    • perform gas exchange
    • helps regulate blood pH
  59. what structures make up the upper respiratory tract
    • nose 
    • nasal cavity
    • sinuses
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
  60. what structures make up the lower respiratory tract
    • lungs
    • airways
    • air sacs
  61. list parts that make up the nose and nasal cavity
    • external nose
    • external nares
    • palate
    • nasal septum
    • nasal conchae
    • internal nares
  62. function of the nose
    • warm, moisten, filter
    • smell
    • modify speech
  63. function of pharynx
    • food & air passageway
    • modify speech vibration
    • contains tonsils
  64. function of larynx
    connects laryngopharynx to the trachea
  65. function of epiglottis
    block food and liquids from entering trachea
  66. function of true vocal cords
    vibrate to produce speech
  67. function of trachea
    passageway for air
  68. function of alveoli
    hold air temporarily so that oxygen can be absorbed into the blood stream
  69. three regions of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  70. function of pleural membrane
    separate lungs and maintain air tightness
  71. nine pieces of cartilage that make up the larynx
    • thyroid
    • laryngeal prominence
    • cricoid
    • arytenoid
    • cuneiform
    • corniculate
    • epiglottis
  72. two emergency airways that can be used in a patient
    • tracheotomy
    • intubation
  73. list the divisions of the bronchial tree
    • primary bronchi
    • secondary bronchi
    • tertiary bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • terminal bronchioles
    • alveoli
  74. symptoms of asthma
    • shortness of breath
    • coughing
    • wheezing
  75. what is found between the two layers of the pleural membrane
    pleural fluid
  76. how many lobes does each lung have
    • right has 3
    • left has 2
  77. what changes happen to the thoracic cavity during inhalation
    • thoracic cavity and lungs expand
    • diaphragm contracts (flattens)
    • external intercostal muscles contract
    • increased volume decreases pressure inside the lungs
    • air rushes in
  78. what happens
  79. what changes happen to the thoracic cavity during exhalation
    • thoracic cavity and lungs decrease in size
    • diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
    • decreased volume increase pressure inside the lungs
    • air rushes out
  80. what is the typical respiration rate
    12-20 breaths per minute
  81. variables that affect lung capacity
    • height
    • age
    • sex
    • smoking
    • lung disease
  82. how is oxygen transported in the blood
    • external respiration
    • internal respiration
  83. what is external respiration
    gas exchange between alveoli and blood
  84. what is internal expiration
    gas exchange between the blood and the cells
  85. why is too much CO2 deadly
    • hemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO2 than O2
    • so if there is too much CO2 hemoglobin will bond to it
    • rather than O2 resulting in hypoxia
  86. List 3 ways that CO2 is transported in the blood
    which is most common
    • disolved in plasma
    • carried by hemoglobin
    • *converted into bicarbonate ions
  87. list the structures responsible for respiration control
    • areas in the medulla oblongota and pons
    • some voluntary control
  88. two types of COPD
    • chronic bronchitis
    • emphysema
  89. main cause of lung cancer
  90. gastroenterology
    study of the GI system
  91. metabolism
    The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life
  92. catabolism
    The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy
  93. anabolism
    The synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
  94. nutrients
    A substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life
  95. vitamins
    Any of various fat-soluble or water-soluble organic substances essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal foods
  96. mineral
    A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence
  97. ingestion
    the process of taking food in through the mouth
  98. mechanical digestion
    The breaking of food into digestible chunks, normally using the teeth
  99. chemical digestion
    breakdown of food using chemicals such as enzymes
  100. absorption
    uptake of substance through tissue
  101. defecation
  102. peristalsis
    The wavelike muscular contractions of the alimentary canal or other tubular structures by which contents are forced onward toward the opening
  103. peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum
  104. mastication
  105. bolus
    A small rounded mass of a substance, esp. of chewed food at the moment of swallowing
  106. deglutition
  107. GERD
    gastroesophageal reflux disease
  108. rugae
    A fold, crease, or wrinkle, as in the lining of the stomach
  109. chyme
    The pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food
  110. emesis/vomiting
    eject matter from the stomach through the mouth
  111. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  112. hemorrhoids
    a swollen vein or group of veins around the anus
  113. diarrhea
    A condition in which feces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form
  114. constipation
    A condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, usually associated with hardened feces
  115. hepatitis
    a disease characterized by inflammation of the liver
  116. peptic ulcer
    A lesion in the lining (mucosa) of the digestive tract, typically in the stomach or duodenum, caused by the digestive action of pepsin and stomach acid
  117. cirrhosis
    A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis
  118. gallstone
    A small, hard crystalline mass formed abnormally in the gallbladder, often causing severe pain and blockage of the bile duct
  119. irritable bowel syndrome
    A widespread condition involving recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea or constipation, often associated with stress, depression, anxiety, or previous intestinal infection
  120. inflammatory bowel syndrome
    A chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, especially Crohn's disease or an ulcerative form of colitis, characterized by inflammation of the intestine and resulting in abdominal cramping and persistent diarrhea
  121. fat soluble vitamins
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  122. water soluble vitamins
    • Thiamin (B1)
    • Riboflavin (B2)
    • Niacin (B3)
    • Pyridoxine (B6)
    • Cobalamin (B12)
    • BiotinPantothenic Acid (B5)
    • Folic Acid
    • Choline
    • Vitamin C
  123. six steps/functions of digestion
    • ingestion
    • secretion
    • mixing & propulsion
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • defecation
  124. where is the peritoneum
    lines the inside of the abdominal cavity and organs in the cavity
  125. two layers of the peritoneum
    • parietal peritoneum
    • visceral peritoneum
  126. what is found between the two layers of the peritoneum
  127. function of the mouth
    take in/chew food
  128. function of tongue
    • move food around
    • swallow
    • speech
    • taste
  129. function of salivary glands
    secrete saliva
  130. function of teeth
    break down food by chewing
  131. function of pharynx
  132. function of esophagus
    moves food from pharynx to stomach via peristalsis
  133. function of the stomach
    • mashes & mixes food
    • temporarily stores food
    • secretes gastric juices
    • starts protein & fat digestion
  134. function of liver
    • produces bile
    • breaks down drugs and alcohol
    • involved in metabolism
    • break down of glycogen and some vitamins & minerals
    • phagocytosis of old blood cells & bacteria
    • activates vitamin D
  135. function of gallbladder
    stores bile
  136. function of pancreas
    secrete insulin and glucagon
  137. function of small intestine
    chemical digestion and absorption of food
  138. function of large intestine
    • haustral churning & peristalsis push contents to rectum
    • synthesize vitamins w/assistance of bacteria
    • finish absorption of water and vitamin
    • form feces
    • finish water absorption
  139. function of rectum
    stimulates defecation reflex
  140. what is the function of saliva
    • moisten food
    • start breakdown of food
  141. what is saliva comprised of
    • mostly water
    • mucous
    • salivary amylase
  142. name the three sets of salivary glads
    • parotid
    • sublingual
    • submandibular
  143. name the four differen types of teeth
    • incisors
    • canines
    • premolars (bicuspids)
    • molars
  144. pathway of food from mouth to anus
    • mouth--> pharynx--> upper esophageal sphincter--> 
    • esophagus--> cardiac sphincter--> stomach--> pyloric sphincter--> 
    • duodenum--> jejunum--> ilium--> ileocecal--> sphincter--> cecum--> 
    • ascending colon--> transverse colon--> 
    • descending colon--> sigmoid colon--> rectum--> anus
  145. what substances make up gastric juice
    • mucus
    • hydrochloric acid
    • pepsin
    • intrinsic factor
  146. what substances make up pancreatic juice
    • water 
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • digestive enzymes 
    •      -amylase
    •      -pancreatic lipase
    •      -enzymes to digest proteins
    •      -nucleases
  147. three regions of small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ilium
  148. structures inside small intestine that help increase its surface area
    • circular folds
    • villi
    • microvilli
  149. products of carbohydrate digestion
    • dissacharides
    • monosaccharides
    • maltase
    • sucrose
    • lactase
  150. product of protein digestion
    peptides then into amino acides by petidases
  151. product of lipid digestion
    • glycerol
    • fatty acids
  152. how is fat absorption different from other nutrients
    • fat and fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through lacteals
    • (into lymphatic system)
  153. regions of large intestine
    • ileocecal sphincter
    • cecum
    • appendix
    • ascending, transverse, descending & 
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
  154. some causes of diarrhea
    • illness
    • lactose intolerance
    • stress
    • food poisoning
  155. complication of diarrhea
    • dehydration
    • electrolyte imbalance
  156. causes of constipation
    • insufficient fiber or fluids
    • stress
    • lack of exercise
  157. treatment for constipation
    • laxatives
    • fiber
    • drink more water
  158. three types of hepatitis
    • A
    • B
    • C
  159. type of hepatitis healthcare workers are vaccinated for
  160. how does colorectal cancer usually start
  161. signs of colorectal cancer
    • constipation
    • diarrhea 
    • cramping
    • abdominal pain
    • rectal bleeding
    • blood in stool
  162. ways to prevent colon cancer
    hgh-fiber, low-fat diet