it314

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Author:
esmenikmati
ID:
183864
Filename:
it314
Updated:
2012-11-17 09:05:36
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314 database it314
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Description:
test 2 study guide
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  1. Composite Variable
    references a data structure that contains multiple scalar variables
  2. Concatening
    join two strings
  3. Cursor
    points to memory location on DB server that the DBMS uses to process the query
  4. Data Structure
    Object made up of multiple data elements
  5. Exception
    Unwanted Event
  6. Exception Handling
    Gives users options for fixing errors in the EXCEPTION section
  7. Exception Section
    Triggered by EXCEPTION, contains error-handling statements
  8. Execution Section
    Starts with BEGIN
  9. Explicit Cursor
    Retreives and displays data in PL/SQL programs for a query that might retrieve multiple records or none at all
  10. Function
    program that receives one or more inputs (parameters) and returns a single output value
  11. Implicit Cursor
    points to a context area which contains info about the query (number of rows, etc.)
  12. Implicit Data Conversion
    Interpreter automatically converts a value datatype
  13. Logic Error
    Doesn't halt program, but produces incorrect result
  14. Loop
    Executes statements and evaluates an exit condition to determine if it should repeat or exit
  15. PL/SQL Output Buffer
    Memory area on DB server that stores output values before they are displayed to the user
  16. Parse
    Separating a single string of two data items via commas or spaces
  17. Posttest Loop
    • Executes 1 ore more commands before loop evaluates exit condittion for first time
    • (Tests Post-action)
  18. Predefined Exception
    most common error in a program
  19. Pretest Loop
    Evaluates exit condition before executing any commands
  20. Procedural Programming Language (PL)
    Uses detailed, sequential instructions to process data
  21. Reference Variables
    Directly reference a specific DB column or row and assume that datatype
  22. Scalar Variable
    References a single value
  23. Strongly Typed Language
    Each variable must be declared before it can be used
  24. Syntax Error
    Command does not follow guidelines of programming language
  25. Undefined Exception
    Less common errors that do not have predefined names
  26. Anonymous PL/SQL programs
    programs you submit to the interpreter to run, but do not ineract with other program units
  27. Client-side units
    program units stored on client workstation and execute there
  28. Composite Index
    DB index table that contains up to 16 sorted columns that the DBMS can use for finding row location
  29. DB Table Index
    Distinct DB table that contains data values with corresponding columns that specify physical locations of records
  30. Parameter Mode
    Describes how program unit can change the parameter value
  31. Procedure
    Program unit that can receive multiple input parameters and return multiple output values or none at all
  32. Public Variables
    visible to many different PL/SQL programs
  33. ROWID
    specifies internal location of a record in the DB
  34. Stored PL/SQL program units
    Other PL/SQL programs can reference and other DB users can execute
  35. PLSQL: VARCHAR2
    Can store up to 32,767 characters
  36. PLSQL: CHAR
    fixed-length, if you put in less than the requested amount it pads the rest
  37. PLSQL: INTERVAL
    can be DAY TO SECOND or YEAR TO MONTH
  38. Data Structure
    Object made of multiple elements
  39. PLSQL: Composite Variable types
    Record, Table, VARRAY
  40. Reference Variables
    • %type
    • %rowtype
  41. %TYPE syntax
    • variable_name table.column%type
    • references a single field
  42. %ROWTYPE syntax
    variable_name table%rowtype
  43. comments
    • /**/
    • or 
    • --
  44. Exponent operator
    **
  45. setting the buffer
    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 4000
  46. TO_CHAR syntax
    • TO_CHAR(input, 'output');
    • TO_CHAR(2.98, '$999.99');
  47. TO_DATE syntax
    • TO_DATE('input', 'output')
    • TO_DATE('07/14/2003', 'MM/DD/YYYY');
  48. LTRIM(variable)
    RTRIM(variable)
    removes leading and trailing spaces
  49. Function that finds the number of characters
    LENGTH();
  50. INSTR();
    finds location of a substring within a string
  51. SUBSTR( number, number);
    Extracts characters from a string. First number is start point, second is endpoint
  52. Time format
    HH12:MI
  53. Loop Types
    • Loop...Exit
    • Loop...Exit When
    • While...Loop
    • FOR  [counter IN x..y]
  54. Implicit Cursor
    • SELECT field
    • INTO variable
    • FROM table
    • WHERE condition;
    • (CAN ONLY RETURN ONE RESULT)
  55. Explicit Cursor
    • CURSOR name IS <select query>;
    • OPEN name;
    • LOOP
    • FETCH name into variables;
    • EXIT WHEN name%NOTFOUND;
    • END LOOP;
    • CLOSE name;
  56. INDEX creation/deletion
    • CREATE INDEX _____
    • ON column

    DROP INDEX ______
  57. PROCEDURES
    • CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE ______
    • (____ in/out NUMBER;)
    • IS
    • variables
    • BEGIN
    • EXCEPTION
    • END;
  58. FUNCTIONS
    • CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ______
    • (parameters)
    • RETURN DATATYPE
    • IS
    • BEGIN
    • EXCEPTION
    • END;
  59. Inject table with new rows
    INSERT INTO tablename (targets) VALUES (variables);
  60. Remove row from table
    DELETE FROM tablename;

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