Chapter 4 Biology Test

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Carly1513
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183916
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Chapter 4 Biology Test
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2012-11-15 21:57:17
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chapter4 apbiology royston apbioroyston
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Cells and Energy
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  1. ATP
    high energy molecule that contains within its bonds, energy that cells can use
  2. ATP
    low energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
  3. Chemosynthesis
    process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
  4. Photosynthesis
    process by which light  energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
  5. Chlorophyll
    light absorbing pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms 
  6. Thylakoid
    membrane bound structure within chloroplats that contains chlorophyll and light absorbing pigments used in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
  7. Light dependent reactions
    part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to the light independent reactions
  8. Light independent reactions
    part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light dependent reactions to synthesize carbohydrates
  9. Photosystem
    series of light absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoid membrane
  10. ATP Synthase
    enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that adds high energy phosphate group to ATP to perform ATP
  11. Calvin Cycle
    process by which photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2
  12. Cellular Respiration
    process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon based molecules when oxygen is present
  13. Aerobic
    process that requires oxygen to occur
  14. Glycolysis
    anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced
  15. Anaerobic
    process that doesn't require oxygen to occur
  16. Krebs Cycle
    process during cellular respiration that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain
  17. Fermentation
    anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis
  18. Lactic Acid
    product of fermentation in many types of cells including human muscle cells
  19. What do all cells use for energy
    They use a chemical energy called ATP
  20. What is ATP
    high energy molecule that contains energy that cells need
  21. What is the relationship between ATP and ADP
    ADP is a low energy molecule that can be converted to ATP which is a high energy molecule
  22. Why are some organisms called producers?
    They produce a source of energy for themselves and other organisms
  23. What is the function of photosynthesis
    Transforms sunlight to chemical energy
  24. What is chlorophyll?
    Light absorbing pigments in photosynthetic organisms
  25. What are chloroplasts
    Membrane bound organelles where photosynthesis takes place
  26. In which two parts of a chloroplast does photosynthesis take place
    The two parts are the grana and the stroma
  27. What are thylakoids
    Membrane enclosed compartments in the grana
  28. Chemical equation for photosynthesis. Explain what the equation means and identify the reactants and products
    • 6CO2+6H2O →→→→→ C6H12O6+6CO2
    • This describes how carbon dioxide are combined with the addition of light and enzymes (arrows) to form sugar adn oxygen
  29. What are the differences between light dependent and light independent reactions
    Light dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight. Light independent use energy from the light dependent reaction
  30. What is cellular respiration
    Releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon based molecules to make ATP
  31. Why is cellular respiration called an aerobic process
    it is called an aerobic process because it requires oxygen to take place
  32. Where does cellular respiration take place
    Mitochondria
  33. What happens during glycolysis
    It splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules and makes two molecules of ATP 
  34. In what two ways does cellular respiration seem to be the opposite of photosynthesis
    Photosynthesis absorbs energy and cellular respiration releases it, Also the chemical equation is the reverse
  35. In which two parts of the mitochondria does cellular respiration take place
    The matrix and the inner mitochondrial membrane
  36. Write the chemical equation for the overall process of cellular respiration
    C6H12O6+6CO2 →→→→→ 6CO2+6H2O
  37. What is the importance of fermentation
    Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue
  38. What is the function of fermentation
    It removes electrons from NADH molecules and recycles NAD+ molecules for glycolysis
  39. When does fermentation take place in your muscle cells
    When your muscles contract
  40. Wy is fermentation an anaerobic process
    Because it doesn't require oxygen to take place
  41. How is fermentation involved in the process of ATP
    It allows glycolysis to produce ATP and removes waste
  42. How are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation similar? Different?
    They both don't require oxygen, start the same, and the recycling of the ATP
  43. What is lactic acid
    C3H6O3 and it causes your muscles to burn during hard exercise
  44. Step by step light dependent reactions
    • 1. energy absorbed from sunlight
    • 2. water molecules split
    • 3. hydrogen ions transported
    • 4. energy absorbed from sunlight
    • 5. NADPH produced
    • 6. Hydrogen ion diffusion
    • 7. ATP produced
  45. Step by step light independent reactions
    • 1. carbon dioxide molecules enter the calvin cycle
    • 2. energy added to molecules, molecules rearranged into high energy molecules
    • 3. a high energy 3 carbon molecule leaves the cycle, two are bonded to make a 6-carbon sugar
    • 4. 3 carbon molecules changed back to 5 carbon molecules by energy from ATP
  46. Step by Step Krebs cycle
    • 1. pyruvate broken down
    • 2. Coenzyme A binds, intermediate enters cycle
    • 3. citric acid formed
    • 4. citric acid broken down
    • 5. 5 carbon molecule broken down
    • 6. 4 carbon molecule rearranged
  47. Step by Step electron transport chain
    • 1. electrons removed
    • 2. hydrogen atoms transported
    • 3. ATP produced
  48. Oxygen's role in cellular respiration
    Finally enters process, picks up electrons and hydrogen ions to form water
  49. Stages of Cellular Respiration
    GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport Chain
  50. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are types of 
    carbon compounds
  51. Carbon compounds are broken down to produce
    ATP
  52. Overview of 4.1
    All cells need chemical energy. ATP is the primary source of energy in all cells. ATP transfers energy for cell processes such as building new molecules and transporting materials.
  53. Overview of 4.2
    The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. Photosynthesis uses energy captured from sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars. Sunlight is absorbed during the light dependent reactions, and sugars are made during the light independent reactions
  54. Overview of 4.3
    Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions. Energy from sunlight is absorbed in the thylakoid membrane by photosystems II and I in the light dependent reactions. The energy is transferred to the Calvin cycle, which builds sugar molecules from carbon dioxide.
  55. Overview of 4.4
    The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen. Glycolysis splits glucose and when oxygen is present the products of glycolysis are used in cellular respiration. The Krebs cycle transfers energy to the electron transport chain, which produces most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells.
  56. Overview of 4.5
    Cellular respiration is an aerobic process with two main stages. The Krebs cycle breaks down carbon based molecules and transfers energy to electron carriers. The electron carriers provide energy to the electron transport chain. ATP is produced by the electron transport chain when hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase.
  57. Overview of 4.6
    Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue producing ATP when oxygen is unavailable. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in many cells, including human muscle cells.

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