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What are the layers of myscular tissue?
- Perimysium - around perimeter (outer most layer)
- Epimysuim - surrounds each bundle of fibers
- Endomysuim - Inside the bundle of fibers
What is the biochemical pathway in the muscles in Aerobic?
- With oxygen
- Glucose - Pyruvate - Mitochondria (ATP)
- first 2 make Glycolysis and 3rd (TCA cycle or Krebs)
What is the biochemical pathway in the muscles in Anaerobic?
- With out oxygen
- Glucose - Pyruvate - Lactate
- from Lactate it goes back to Pyruvate making a Cori Cycle
- (in the liver)
What is the Sliding Muscle Theory of Muscle Contraction?
- Ca2+ bind to troponin - Tropomyosin
- the binding allows the movement of Myosin heads down the Actin Filaments
What kind of filament is Myosin?
It is Thick Filaments
What kind of filament is Actin?
It is Thin Filaments
What kind of filament is Titin?
It is the retraction of the filaments after contraction
What is Synapse?
- Nerve and Muscular
- Neuromuscular Jxn
What is Sarcoplasmic Retuculum Release?
What should we know about the Function Unit of Contraction?
How is Slow Twich discribed?
- Few Hemoglobins
- Slower Glycolysis
How is Intemediate Twich discribed?
- It is a mixture of slow and fast
How is Fast Twitch discribed?
- Lots of mitochondrias and hemoglobins
- Increase glucose
- for short distances (dash)
What is the Muscle Indicator of Damage?
- CK - Creatine Kinase
- If you have a large amount of CK in your blood in indicates that there is muscle damage (heart attack)
Discribe Skeletal Muscle
- Postural Muscles
- Sliding filament theory
Discribe Cardiac Muscle
- Intercalated disk (ap Jxn) held together by connexons
- Wave like contractions at a specific pace
- Found in the heart
Discribe Smooth Muscle
- No Striations
- No Intercalated Disks
- Cork Screw Contraction
- Found in the Stomach / Digestive System
- Spindle Shape
What is an Isotonic Contraction?
Tension in the muscle rises and the length changes
What is Isometric Contraction?
- Tension in muscle rises, but the length stays the same
What is Isotonic Concentric?
Tension rises, muscles shortens
What is Isotonic Eccentric?
Tension rises, muscles lengthens
What is CNS?
- Central Nervous System
- Brain and Spinal Cord
What is PNS?
- Peripheral Nervous System
- Everything out of the Spinal Cord
What is the Autonomic in the PNS responsible for?
- Parasympathetic Sympathetic
- Relaxation Flight or Fight Response
- Sacral Chain Cervical Chain
What are the 4 Glial Cells?
- Oligodendrocytes (Myelin for nerves)
- Astrocytes (Blood, Brain Barriers)
- Neuroglial (Immune System) Macrophages
- Ependyma (CSF) Cerebro Spinal Fliud
Monitors Co2 and O2 levels
How is Efferent distributed in the CNS?
It goes fron the Brain to the Body
How is Afferent distributed in the PNS?
It goes from the Body to the Brain
Discribe Action Potential
- -90 mv = Threshold (AP fires off)
- Voltage gated Ions Channels Open
- Na+ = extracellular Cation
- 30 mv = Na+ gates closes and K+ gates open (intracellular cation)
Discribe Spacial Summation
Adding impulses at the same time changing from different areas
Discribe Tempreal Summation
Adding impluses at the same site, but recieved at different times