Sometimes _______ control less resources than _________ actors.
In other words, sometimes ________ _______ are larger than the ______.
international organizations; state
Not all national political systems are ____________.
Which group is not keen on IO's? Why?
Realists. They are obsessed with the state.
International Institutions vs. Organizations
International institutions are commonly defined as norms, rules, and practices that "prescribe _________ roles, __________ activity, and shape __________"
behavioral; constrain; expectations
International ________, like the United Nations, are physical entities that have staff, head offices, and letterheads, while international _______ can exist without any organizational strucure.
What is an example of an instituton?
Capitalism and the 1997 Ottawa Convention banning landmines.
_______ may lead to ___________.
The World Trade Organization is an _______ with a very strong _______ structure.
What can insitutional organizations not exist without?
An institutonal framwork.
International organizations cannot exist without an institutional framework, as their very existence pressuposes a prior set of norms, rules, and principles that empower them to ______ and which they are charged to ________.
The United Nations could not have functioned nor existed unless the states had done what?
Negotiated the Charter of the United Nations.
States crate international institutions at three levels:
1) constitutional amendments
2) fundamental institutions
3) issue specific institutions or regimes
There are ______ constitutional amendments.
What is one of these principles?
What does it do?
It defines the terms of legitimate statehood.
Without the institution of sovereignty, the world of _______ states, and the international ________ it engenders, would simply _______ ______.
independent; politics; not exist
In what would way would Tunisia be equal to the U.S.?
They both hold sovereignty.
What sorts of fundamental institutions have states created? (2 examples)
International law and multilateralism.
These provide the basic ______ and _______ that shape how states solve ________ and ________ problems.
rules; practices; cooperation; coordination
Laws are now ___________.
What is an example of as issue-specific institute or regime?
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
The NPT enacts _________ institutional practices in particular realms of inter-state _______.
Definition of International Law
What is international law?
A normative system to achieve common values.
Who do these values speak to?
All of us, regardless of class, race, gender, religion, and level of development.
What is meant by level of development?
Developed/industrialized or underdeveloped.
International law should be ________.
International Law: past and present
Prior to the ________ Revolution, in the 'Age of __________', law was understood principally as the command of a legitimate _______, and international law was seen as a command of _____, derived from ______ law.
French; Absolutism; superior; God; natural
What is the argument today in some places concerning divine rule?
Whether it should be the only law, or one of the sources.
Religious laws tend to be _______ and go back to the ______ Ages.
International Law: Modern
In the modern period, law has come to be seen as something contracted between _______ subjects, or their __________;
international law has been seen as the expression of the ______ will of ________.
International Law: Past and Present
In the Age of Absolutism, what was the root of all legal obligations?
Fealty to God.
Consent was constituted as a ________ source of obligation
Law was generally understood as the command of a legitimate...?
Who were monarchs subject to?
The subjects of particular states were also ruled by ________ law, which was the command of _______, who stood above the law.
Customary norms are a _______ category of international law.
These are considered ______ upon all states irrespective of whether they have ______.
However, many states _____ to these laws.
Customary norms include (3 things):
the rules governing territorial jurisdiction
freedom of the seas
the diplomatic immunities of states
When many nations, but not all, make an agreement.
When did multilateralism become the preferred mode of international legislation?
In the 19th century.
Why is this?
Because issues are no longer just between two states.
Under multilateralism, when are laws considered legitimate?
When those who are subject to it authored it.
If a nation violates a multilateral law, how can the other states proceed?
They too might violate it.
Today, consent is treated as the _______ source of international legal obligation.