Endocrine

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Johaubannah
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183981
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Endocrine
Updated:
2012-11-16 13:54:30
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Endocrine
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Endocrine
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  1. Endocrine glands secretes _________.
    hormones
  2. What are hormones?
    Hormones are chemicals that accelerate or slow physiologic processes, directly into the bloodstream
  3. They play a vital role in regulating homeostatic processessuch as:
    • • Metabolism
    • • Growth
    • • Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • • Reproductive processes
    • • Sleep and wake cycles
  4. Stop, Think, and Respond Exercise 49-1
    Give examples of hormones that affect metabolism,growth, fluid and electrolyte balance, reproductiveprocesses, and sleep and wake cycles.
    • Some hormones that affect metabolism include thyroxine, triiodothyronine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
    • A hormone that affects growth is somatotropin;
    • hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone regulate fluid and electrolyte balance.
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androgens from the adrenal cortex, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone influence reproductive processes.
    • Melatonin promotes sleep when light in the environment decreases; bright light inhibits its secretion.
  5. Many endocrine glands respond to stimulation from the _________.
    Pituitarygland (or hypophysis)
  6. Pituitarygland (or hypophysis)
    Pituitarygland (or hypophysis) is connected by a stalk to the hypothalamus in the brain
  7. How many lobes are there in pituitary gland?
    • The pituitaryis divided into three lobes:
    • the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis),
    • intermediate lobe (pars intermedia),
    • andposterior lobe (neurohypophysis).
  8. The master gland is _____________
    Pituitarygland
  9. It is a portion of the brain between the cerebrum and the brain stem, projects down toward the pituitarygland.
    Hypothalamus
  10. Six hypothalamic hormones have been identified. What are these hormones?
    • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulatesthe release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) fromthe anterior pituitary gland
    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which causes theanterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropichormone (ACTH)
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which triggerssexual development at the onset of puberty and continuesto cause the anterior pituitary gland to secrete luteinizinghormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), whichresults in the release of somatotropin (growth hormone[GH]) from the anterior pituitary gland. GHRH secretionis controlled by another hypothalamic hormone, somatostatin,which is also secreted by other tissues outside thehypothalamus such as the pancreas.
    • Somatostatin, which inhibits GHRH and TSH and alsoblocks the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones,including gastrin, cholecystokinin, and secretin; lowersthe blood flow within the intestine; suppresses the releaseof insulin and glucagon from the pancreas; and suppressesthe release of exocrine enzymes from the pancreas.
    • Hypothalamic dopamine, which inhibits the release ofprolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. (Dopamine, ofwhich there are five variants, is produced in several structureswithin the brain, one of which is the hypothalamus.)
  11. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulatesthe release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) fromthe anterior pituitary gland
  12. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which causes theanterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropichormone (ACTH)
  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which triggerssexual development at the onset of puberty and continuesto cause the anterior pituitary gland to secrete luteinizinghormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  14. Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH)
    Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), whichresults in the release of somatotropin (growth hormone[GH]) from the anterior pituitary gland. GHRH secretionis controlled by another hypothalamic hormone, somatostatin,which is also secreted by other tissues outside thehypothalamus such as the pancreas.
  15. Somatostatin
    Somatostatin, which inhibits GHRH and TSH and alsoblocks the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones,including gastrin, cholecystokinin, and secretin; lowersthe blood flow within the intestine; suppresses the releaseof insulin and glucagon from the pancreas; and suppressesthe release of exocrine enzymes from the pancreas.
  16. Hypothalamic dopamine
    Hypothalamic dopamine, which inhibits the release ofprolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. (Dopamine, ofwhich there are five variants, is produced in several structureswithin the brain, one of which is the hypothalamus.)

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