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  1. Psychological Benefits of PA
    • Improves health-related quality of life. 
    • Improves one’s mood. 
    • Alleviates symptoms of mild depression. 
    • Reduces anxiety. 
    • Aids in managing stress. 
    • Enhances self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-confidence. 
    • Offers opportunities for affiliation with others.
    • Offers opportunities to experience “peak” moments. 
    • Provides recreation and a change of pace. 
    • Invites individuals to challenge themselves and strive for mastery. 
    • Offers creative and aesthetic experiences. 
    • Increasing recognition of physical activity as a therapeutic modality.
  2. Transtheoretical model
    • Stages of change 
    • Precontemplation 
    • Contemplation 
    • Preparation 
    • Action 
    • Maintenance 
    • Termination 

    • Decisional balance - pros and cons
    • Self-efficacy 
    • Target intervention to individual’s current stage.
  3. Exercise Dropout
    • Low self-motivation 
    • Low self-efficacy 
    • Denial of seriousness of one’s health condition 
    • Obesity 
    • type A behavior pattern 
    • Smokers 
    • Blue-collar workers 
    • Depression
    • Perception that exercise has few health benefits 
    • Inactive lifestyle 
    • Sedentary occupations Lack of social support 
    • Family problems 
    • Interference of job-related responsibilities 
    • Inconvenience 
    • High-intensity exercise

    • Program Design 
    • Increase social support available to participants. 
    • Offer programs at convenient times and locations. 
    • Goal-setting and periodic assessment. 
    • Enthusiastic leaders. 
    • Strong communication. 
    • Establishment of rapport. 
    • Consideration of individual needs and interests.
  4. Exercise Adherence
    • Educational approaches 
    • Increase participants’ knowledge and understanding of the benefits. 

    • Behavioral approaches 
    • Reinforcement 
    • Contracting 
    • Self-monitoring 
    • Goal-setting 
    • Enhancement of self-efficacy
  5. Anxiety
    subjective feeling of apprehension accompanied by a heightened level of physiological arousal
  6. Physiological arousal 
    autonomic response that results in the excitation of various organs of the body
  7. Trait and state anxiety
    • Trait: integral part of an individual’s personality. 
    • State: emotional response to a specific situation that results in feelings of fear, tension, or apprehension. 
    • Find the optimal level of arousal that allows for peak performance
  8. Reducing Anxiety- Athletes
    Use physical activity to release stress & anxiety. 

    §Pre-competition routines.

    §Simulate games in practice.

    §Tailor preparation for game to the individual athlete.

    §Build self-confidence and high, realistic expectations.

    §Promote use of positive self-talk.

    §Keep errors in perspective

    §Keep athletes’ focus on present, not past events.

    §Incorporate relaxation training as necessary.
  9. Goal-setting
    • Specification of a level of proficiency 
    • Types of goals 
    • Outcome goals ÷Interpersonal comparison 
    • Performance goals ÷Personal achievement 
    • Process goals ÷Technique 

    • Mechanism
    • Focuses attention 
    • Mobilizes effort 
    • Fosters persistence 
    • Promotes development of new learning strategies
  10. SMART Goal-setting
    S = specific goals versus general 

    §M = measurable goals to monitor progress

    §A = action-oriented goals

    §R = realistic but achievable with effort

    §T = time frame for achievement
  11. Self-Talk
    • Types 
    • Task-relevant statements -Remind self of technique or strategy 

    —Positive statements -Effort, persistence, confidence 

    —Mood statements -Modify intensity
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intro pe
2012-11-16 18:16:56

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