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Psychological Benefits of PA
- Improves health-related quality of life.
- Improves one’s mood.
- Alleviates symptoms of mild depression.
- Reduces anxiety.
- Aids in managing stress.
- Enhances self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-confidence.
- Offers opportunities for affiliation with others.
- Offers opportunities to experience “peak” moments.
- Provides recreation and a change of pace.
- Invites individuals to challenge themselves and strive for mastery.
- Offers creative and aesthetic experiences.
- Increasing recognition of physical activity as a therapeutic modality.
- Stages of change
- Decisional balance - pros and cons
- Target intervention to individual’s current stage.
- Low self-motivation
- Low self-efficacy
- Denial of seriousness of one’s health condition
- type A behavior pattern
- Blue-collar workers
- Perception that exercise has few health benefits
- Inactive lifestyle
- Sedentary occupations Lack of social support
- Family problems
- Interference of job-related responsibilities
- High-intensity exercise
- Program Design
- Increase social support available to participants.
- Offer programs at convenient times and locations.
- Goal-setting and periodic assessment.
- Enthusiastic leaders.
- Strong communication.
- Establishment of rapport.
- Consideration of individual needs and interests.
- Educational approaches
- Increase participants’ knowledge and understanding of the benefits.
- Behavioral approaches
- Enhancement of self-efficacy
subjective feeling of apprehension accompanied by a heightened level of physiological arousal
autonomic response that results in the excitation of various organs of the body
Trait and state anxiety
- Trait: integral part of an individual’s personality.
- State: emotional response to a specific situation that results in feelings of fear, tension, or apprehension.
- Find the optimal level of arousal that allows for peak performance
Reducing Anxiety- Athletes
Use physical activity to release stress & anxiety.
§Simulate games in practice.
§Tailor preparation for game to the individual athlete.
§Build self-confidence and high, realistic expectations.
§Promote use of positive self-talk.
§Keep errors in perspective
§Keep athletes’ focus on present, not past events.
§Incorporate relaxation training as necessary.
- Specification of a level of proficiency
- Types of goals
- Outcome goals ÷Interpersonal comparison
- Performance goals ÷Personal achievement
- Process goals ÷Technique
- Focuses attention
- Mobilizes effort
- Fosters persistence
- Promotes development of new learning strategies
S = specific goals versus general
§M = measurable goals to monitor progress
§A = action-oriented goals
§R = realistic but achievable with effort
§T = time frame for achievement
- Task-relevant statements -Remind self of technique or strategy
Positive statements -Effort, persistence, confidence
Mood statements -Modify intensity