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the act of using out sensory systems to detect environmental stimuli
the interpretation of our sensations
These cells convert sensations gathered from the environment and turn then into neural impulses
the act of converting sensations into neural impulses
Define "absolute threshold"
- the smallest amount of stimulus that one can detect
- ex. What is the dimmest light you can see?
an example of absolute threshold involving hearing
the tick of a watch at 6 meters in a quiet room
define "difference threshold"
the minimal difference needed to notice a difference between two stimuli
this adaptation allows us to focus on the important stimuli in our environment
A crying baby will wake us, but not a thunderstorm that may be louder - this is an example of?
- a processing system which begins by transducing environmental stimuli into neural impulses that move onto brain processing
- using the environment/stimuli to make a thought
- a perception process led by a cognitive process, such as memory or expectation
- already knowledged about the subject, doesnt need stimuli to make new thought
There is a different "difference threshold" for differnt senses. 2 factors that account for the difference threshold
- depends on the strength of the original stimulus
- the JND is proportional to the strength of the original stimulus
in this type of sensory processing, you mistake a person in the grocery store for someone you know.
_____ is the readiness to interpret a certain stimulus is a certain way
order to light into the eye (4)
the part of the eye that contains light receptors and transduces light into neural impulses
2 types of receptor cells in the retina?
rods and cones
these eye receptor cells are used for
periphery and night vision
eye receptor cell used for central and color vision. These cells are very acute, but need more light
the region of our eye where vision is the sharpest
it is made entirely of cones, in the center of the retina
The _________ carries messages from each eye to the visual cortex
where is the blind spot in the eye?
where the optic nerve leaves the retina
3 characteristics of color
a color who has white or grey in it is said to be _____________
The trichomatic theory of color vision states that:
(which explains color vision at the level of the retina)
there are 3 differnt sensors for color and each type responds to a differnt range of wavelengths of light
this theory states color pairs work to inhibit one another in color perception
opponent process theory (hering)
this theory explains why we cannot see mixtures of color
opponent process theory
this theory of color vision explains vision at the level of the brain (thalamus)
opponent process theory
the best of example of 'x' theory is the negative afterimage
opponent process theory
most people who are color blind cannot distinguish between 2 colors
- red and green
- they see brown
the three step flow of vision leaving the retina to the brain
- 1)leaves the retina
- 3) primary visual (in occipital lobe)
the two pathways of visual processing are
The what pathway - object identification and facial recognition
The where pathway - where an object is in space
visual agnosia happends where there is damage to this region of the brain
what is Visual agnosia
a condition when you cannnot recognize objects
This condition is a result of damage to the temporal lobe, when you cannot recognize faces
"Hemi-neglect" is damage to _____pathway. Describe it
- Damage to the where pathway
- people ignore one side of their visual field
Damage to the left side of the brain of the Where pathway caused a condition known as hemi-neglect, what side of vision would be affected?
Damage to the left side affects vision on the right side
Shaving one side of the face
putting make up to one side of the face
are examples of?
hemi-neglect, damaage to the where pathway involved in visual
Define the monocular cue:
when an object blocks part of another from our view, we see the blocked object as farther away
Define the monocular cue:
we see objects that are higher in our visual plane as farther away than those that are lower
define monocular cue:
we can see more details of textured surfaces, such as wood grain on a table, that are closer to us
define the monocular cue:
parallel lines seem to converge in the distance
define the monocular cue:
we use shading from top of the object to the bottom of the object to judge size and distance of objects
we look outside a moving car, things closer to us seem to move way faster than things in the distant. This is a _____ cue called?
monocular cue called motion parallax
"we can see an object as the same shape no matter from what angle it is viewed" complies with?
- Shape constancy
- top-down processing
2 forms of non-associative learning include?
the majority of learning occurs by ______ learning
2 types of associative learning?
- classical conditioning
- operant conditioning
Ivav pavlov, founded this form of learning where there is association of two stimuli
what is an unconditioned stimulus?
a stimulus that on it's own causes a response
what is a conditioned stimulus?
a neutral stimulus, where on its own it does not cause a reaction until it has been conditioned to be assosiated (paired) with an unconditional stimulus to cause the same response
the strength of learning (make a pairing of CS and US) in conditioning depends on?
- the number of pairings between a Conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
- more pairings is better
Important factors in learning to pair a CS and US?
timing and number of pairings you are exposed to
- the close the timing, the faster learning
- the more pairing exposures = more likely to be learned
What is a conditioned response?
- an association learned
- when a stimulus causes an organism to exhibit a certain behaviour
- the response does not occur in the presence of SIMILAR stimuli, only specific
ie. a specific tone is learned, rat can pair which tone is matched to an upcoming shock
what is stimulus generalization?
when a previously conditioned stimulus, a bell, is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, a light, to elicit a response.
soon the dog only responds when the red light is present
in conditioning of learning associations, what is "spontaneous recovery"?
re-emergance of a conditioned response some time after Extinction has occured
in conditioning of learning associations, what is "extinction"?
reduction of a conditioned response after over presented stimulus
ie a crying child will eventually stop of there is no reaction
how does classical conditioning relate to drug addiction?
- taking the drug causes an effect
- withdrawl experience make you want to reexperience that effect
how is drug overdose related to classical conditioning?
a learned response (to the drug) can trigger overdose.
body compensates for the effect of the drug by RELATING environmental cues, signalling your body to prepare
when these signals are absent, your body is not prepared to the drug, the high can shock your body and kill you
Classical conditioning applies to what aspects of drug abuse?
a process used to condition extinction of a phobia?
Problems with classical conditioning?
- no participation of the learner
- cannot account for all learning
- leaner is not aware of associations being made
this type of learning (conditioning) is where behaviour is modified baded on the outcome of the consequence
In operant conditioning, what is the LAW OF EFFECT?
behaviours leading to rewards are more likely to occur again, while behaviours leading to unpleasantness are less likely to occur again
the difference between a positive and negative reinforcer?
- a positive reinforcer is when a stimulus is added
- a negative reinforcer is when a stimulus is removed
both increase the likeliness of a behaviour
example of negative reinforcement?
taking away a headache increases the probability that you will take a pain reliever again
What is the difference between a Primary and secondary reinforcer?
Primary - life value (satisfy a biological need), food,sex etc
Secondary - become rewarding when associated with a primar reinforcer (money)
Difference between positive and negative punisment?
- positive adds a stimulus (yelling, spanking)
- negative removes a stimulus (remove privledges)
both are intended to decrease the chance a behaviour will occur again
What is a primary punisher? Provide an example
Primary - punishment naturally aversive (spanking)
usually associated with pain or discomfort
which type is more effective between reinforcement and punishment?
reinforcement is more effective
____ punishment is more effective than _____ punishment
negative is more effective than positive punishment
two types of schedules in regards to reinforcment. These are?
Fixed and variable schedules of reinforcment
what is an example of a fixed schedule of reinforcement?
free coffee after buying 9 cups
what is the difference between a ratio schedule and interval schedule?
- ratio is based on the # of behavioural responses
- interval is based on elapsed time
what is the best schedule for reinforcement?
continous reinforcement is easiest, but pratial reinforcement schedules are more effective in the long term
what is learned helplessness?
- repeated exposure to a situation (abuse) where inescapable punishment eventually produces failure to make escape attempts
- conditioned to avoid escape
- only occurs in situations where you have NO control
observational learning leads to ______, evidende that learning has occured
Bobo doll experiment exemplified?
- observational learning and violence
- those who saw the woman get rewarded for beating the doll were more likely to engage in the behaviour than those who saw the woman being punished for the behaviour
Memory involes 3 processes:
this model states information is stored and retreived piece by piece and moves along 3 stages during encoding, storage, and retreival
this memory model states:
memories are stored as part of a large integrated web of information and represented in the brain as a pattern of activation across entire neural networks
3 stages of information processing model
- sensory memory (short)
- working memory (if not transferred to long term it is lost)
- long-term memory
short-term memory is also called?
active or primary memory
unconscious memory is also called
long term memory