Arteries & Veins

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Arteries & Veins
2012-11-16 19:18:51
Arteries Veins

Arteries & Veins
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  1. Internal carotid artery
    No branches in the neck and supplies structures internal to the skull. It enters the cranial cavity through the carotid foramen in the temporal bone. It supplies blood to the eyball and other orbital structures, the ear, most of the cerebrum of the brain, the pituitary gland, and the external nose.
  2. Exteral carotid artery
    Begins at the superior border of the larynx and terminates near the temporomandibular joint of the parotid gland, where it divides into two branches. The carotid pulse can be detected in this artery just anterior to the SCM muscle at the superior border of the larynx. Supplies structures external to the skull.
  3. Vertebral artery
    Passes through the foramina of the transverse processes of the sixth through first cervical vertebrae and enters the skull through the foramen magnum to reach the inferior surface of the brain. Supplies the posterior portion of the brain with blood.
  4. Brachiocephalic trunk
    Divides to form the right subclavian artery and right common carotid artery.
  5. aortic arch
    The continuation of the ascending aorta. It emerges from the pericardium posterior to the sternum. The arch is directed supiorly and posteriorly to the left and then inferiorly, where it becomes the thoracic aorta.
  6. brachial artery
    The continuation of the axillary arter into the arm. Provides the main blood supply to the arm and is superficial and palpable along its course. It begins at the tendons of the teres major muscle and ends just distal to the bend of the elbow.
  7. radial artery
    The smaller branch and a direct continuation of the brachial artery. It passes along the lateral (radial) aspect of the forearm and then through the wrist and hand, supplying these structures with blood. At the wrist, it makes contact with the distal end of the rdius where it is covered only by fascia and skin. B/c of its superficial location at this point, it is a common site for measuring the radial pulse.
  8. coronary arteries
    Arise from the ascending aorta just supior to the aortic semilunar valve. They form a crowlike ring around the heart, giving off branches to the myocardium.
  9. thoracic aorta artery
    A continuation of the arch of the aorta. It lies to the left of the vertebral column. As it descends, it passes through an opening in the diaphragm and becomes the abdominal aorta as it enters the abdominal cavity.
  10. abdominal aorta artery
    The continuation of the thoracic aorta. It begins as the aorta penetrates the diaphragmn and end where it divides into the right and lieft common iliac arteries. Lies anterior to the vertebral column.
  11. celiac trunk
    The first visceral branch from the aorta inferor to the diaphragm, at about the level of the twelfth thoracic vertra. Almost immediately the celiac trunk divides into three branches.
  12. renal artery
    Usually arise from the lateral aspects of the abdominal aorta at the superior border of the second lumbar vertebra, about 1 cm inferior to the superior mesenteric artery. Carry blood to the kidneys, adrenal glands, and ureters.
  13. inferior mesenteric artery
    Arises from the anterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of the third lumbar vertebra and then passes inferiorly to the left of the aorta. It anastomoses extensively and has three branches.
  14. common iliac artery
    The abdominal aorta ends by dividing into the left and right common iliac arteries to supply the pelves and lower limbs.
  15. femoral artery
    Descend along the anteromedial aspects of the thighs to the junction of the middle and lower third of the thighs. Here they pass through an opening in the tendon of the adductor magnus muscle, then emerge posterior to the femurs as the popliteal arteries. A pulse may be felt in the femoral artery just inferior to the inguinal ligament. Supplies the lower abdominal wall, groin, external genitals, and muscles of the thigh.
  16. popliteal artery
    The continuation of the femoral arteries through the popliteal fossa. They descend to the inferior border of the politeus muscles, where they divide.In addition to supplying the adductor magnus and hamstring muscles and the skin on the posterior aspect of the legs branchs of it also supply the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles of the lower leg.
  17. anterior tibial artery
    Descend from the bifurcation of the popliteal arteries. Descends through the anterior musclular compartment of the leg. Pass through the interosseous membrane that connects the tibia and fibula, lateral to the tibia. Supplies the knee joints, anterior compartment muscles of the leg, skin over the anterior aspects of the legs, and ankle joints.
  18. external jugular vein
    Begin in the parotid glands near the angle of the mandible. Superficial veins that descend through the neck across the SCM muscles. Terminate at a point opposite the midlle of the clavicles, where they empty into the subclavian veins. Structures drained by it are external to the cranium.
  19. internal jugular vein
    Pass inferiorly on either side of the neck lateral to the internal carotid and common carotid arteries. They then unite with the subclavian veins posterior to the clavicles at the sternoclavicular joints to form the right and left brachiocephalic veisn. Structures drained by it are the brain, face, and neck.
  20. vertebral vein
    Originate inferior to the occipital condyles. They descend through successive transverse foramina of the first six cervical vertebrae and emerge from the foramina of the sixth cervical vertbra to enter the brachiocephalic veins in the root of the neck. Drains deep structures in the neck such as the cervical vertebrae, cervical spinal cord, and some neck muscles.
  21. subclavian vein
    Continuations of the axillary veins that terminate at the sternal end of the clavicles, where they unite with the internal jugular veins to form the brachciocephalic veins. Drain the arms, neck, and thoracic wall.
  22. superior vena cava
    Empties its blood into the superior part of the right atrium. It begins posterior to the right first costal cartilage by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins and ends at the level of the right third costal cartilage, where it empties the right atrium. The SVC drains the head, neck, chest, and free upper limbs.
  23. axillary vein
    Ascend to the outer borders of the first ribs, where they become the subclavian veins. Drain the arms, axillas, and superolateral chest wall.
  24. brachiocephalic vein
    Formed by the union of the subclavian and internal jugular veins. Drains blood from the head, neck, upper limbs, mammary glands, and superior thorax.
  25. brachial vein
    Accompany the brachial arteries. Drain the forearms, elbow joints, arms and humerus. They pass superiorly and join with the basillic veins to form the axillary arteries.
  26. ulnar vein
    Begin at the superficial palmar venous arches. Drain the medial aspect of the forearms, pass alongside the ulnar arteries, and join with the radial veins to form the brachial vein.
  27. great cardiac vein
    The anterior interventricular sulcus, which drains the left atrium and left and right ventricles.
  28. hepatic portal
    The flow of blood from the gastrointestinal organs to the liver before returning to the heart.
  29. hepatic vein
    Drains the liver.
  30. inferior vena cava
    The largest vein in the body. It begins anterior to the fifth lumbar vetebra by the union of the common iliac veins, ascends behind the peritoneum to the right of the midline, pierces the caval opening of the diaphragm at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra and enters the inferior part of the right atrium. Drains the abdomen, pelvis, and free lower limbs.
  31. superior mesenteric vein
    Drains blood from the small intestine and portions of the large intestine, stomach, and pancreas.
  32. renal vein
    Pass anterior to the renal arteries. Drain the kidneys.
  33. common iliac vein
    Formed by the union of the internal and external iliac veins anterior to the sacroiliac joint and represent the distal continuation of the inferior vena cava at their bifurcation. Drain the pelvis, external genitals, and lower limbs.
  34. femoral vein
    Accompany the femoral arteries and are the continuations of the popliteal veins just superior to the knee. Extend up the posterior surface of the thighs and drain the muscles of the thighs, femurs, external genitals, and superficial lymph nodes.
  35. great saphenous vein
    The longest veins in the body, ascend from the foot to the groin in the subcutaneous layer. They begin at the medial end of the dorsal venous arches of the foot. Passes anterior to the medial malleolus of the tibia and then superiorly along the medial aspect of the leg and thigh just deep to the skin. Drains mainly the medial side of the leg and thigh, the groin, external genitals, and abdominal wall.
  36. fibular vein
    Drains the lateral and posterior leg muscles.