T2 Review

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zzto
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T2 Review
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2012-11-16 20:19:04
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  1. 1. In the process that takes place during the second step of photosynthesis, which is referred to as the “dark reaction”?
    ANSWER: CO2 is fixed, producing carbohydrates
  2. 2. Which of the following statements about the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) that emerged in the Four Corners region of the Southe Western United States is false?
    ANSWER: High levels of rainfall during the same year as the outbreak led to enhanced plant growth and thus high mouse densities
  3. 3. In the Seychelles warbler, terrestrial behavior encourages a ________ population dispersion patter and cooperative breeding encourages a _________ population dispersion pattern.
    ANSWER: regular; clumped
  4. 4. Which of the following statements about a population that is growing, has reached a stable age distribution, and is maintaining this age distribution is true?
    • A. Its lambda will be relatively constant
    • B. The age structure of the population will not change from one year to the next
    • C. Each of the age classes will increase by a constant multiplier every year
    • ANSWER: All of the above statements are true
  5. 5. A population has a current size of 150. If lambda is 1.2, what will the expected population size be after two generations? You can assume all calculations are correct.
    ANSWER: Nt = lambda N0  N2 = 1.22 X 150 =216 individuals
  6. 6. In contrast to C3 plants, C4 plants have _____, which keeps the CO2 concentration high where the Calvin cycle operates.
    ANSWER: well-differentiated mesophyll cells and bundle sheath tissues with a waxy coating
  7. 7. Suppose the three different populations of beetles all have the same overall density over their respective ranges. Population A has a regular dispersion pattern, Population B has a random dispersion pattern, and Population C has a clumped dispersion pattern. The greatest effects of density are most likely experienced by individuals of Population ____ and the least effects are most likely experienced by Population ______.
    ANSWER: C; A
  8. 8. In some worm species, the actions of individual worms make the soil more hospitable to other members of the same species. Such a phenomenon would tend to encourage which dispersion pattern?
    ANSWER: Clumped
  9. 9. The _______ pathway, which provides high concentrations of CO2 to the Calvin cycle, substantially reduces photorespiration.
    ANSWER: C4 photosynthetic
  10. 10. As CO2 concentrations continue to increase in our atmosphere, photorespiration rates are likely to _______, a change that should _______ the advantage C4 plants have over C3 plants.
    ANSWER: decrease; decrease
  11. 11. Individuals of a plant species are counted in five transects that are each a square meter. In each transect, respectively 8, 15, 19, 27, and 31 plants are found. What is the average density per square meter of this species?
    ANSWER: (8+15+19+27+31)/5 = 20 plants per square meter
  12. 12. Some Aleutian Islands are surrounded by urchin barrens while others are surrounded by kelp forests. Which of the following is the primary explanation for these differences?
    ANSWER: Grazing by urchins prevents the formation of kelp forests
  13. 13. The biochemical pathway most commonly used by plants and chemosynthetic bacteria to fix CO2 in order to synthesis carbohydrates is:
    ANSWER: The Calvin cycle
  14. 14. Large marine turtles called loggerhead sea turtles, which lay eggs in nests under sandy beaches are currently listed as a threatened species. Which of the following statements about these turtles is false?
    ANSWER: The population would start growing if hatching success were increased to at least 80%
  15. 15. Which of the following is (are) the best example(s) of acclimization to temperature variation?
    A. Plants of the genus Atriplex grown in different light environments can vary in terms of the number of chloroplasts available for light harvest.
    B. Plants in different climates have different forms of the same photosynthetic enzymes according to which form operates best in the plant’s particular environment.
    ANSWER: Both A and B
  16. 16. Which of the following is not an abiotic feature of the environment?
    ANSWER: The density of earthworms present in the soil
  17. 17. Rubisco, which is an important catalyst in photosynthesis, is also a catalyst in the process of photorespiration. Photorespiration differs from photosynthesis in that in photorespiration _____ is taken up, _______ is released, and there is ______ energy.
    ANSWER: O2, CO2, a net loss of
  18. 18. Estes and his colleagues speculate that the decline in otters during the 1990s was due to:
    ANSWER: a switch in the predation patterns of killer whales (orcas) to include more otters
  19. 19. A population of Drosophila mauritiana reproduces in synchrony at discrete time periods every generation, and generations occur at two week intervals. The current population size is 1,000 and its geometric population growth rate is 3.0 per generation. What will the expected size of the population be after 6 weeks?
    ANSWER: Nt = lambdat N0 --> N3 = 3.03 X 1000 = 27,000
  20. 20. It is likely that the first organisms on Earth were ______ that obtained energy through ______.
    ANSWER: heterotrophs; amino acids and sugars that formed spontaneously in the early atmosphere
  21. 21. Which of the following populations would be expected to remain stable in size?
    A. A population with a lambda of 1
    B. A population with an r of 0
    ANSWER: Both A and B
  22. 22. Area-based methods often make use of sampling areas of a defined size called:
    ANSWER: quadrants
  23. 23. Biologists looking at the population ecology of two Drosophila species spends the day collecting them at the park. They caught 160 Drosophila fallent and 74 Drosophila neotestacea. Which is true?
    ANSWER: Differences in the activities of the 2 species, as opposed to differences in their respective population sizes is a possible explanation for the differences in the number of each species collected.
  24. 24. As light increases, photosynthetic rates increase, photosynthetic rates level off at the light _______point.
    ANSWER: saturation
  25. 27
  26. 26
  27. 28. Only a small portion of the world’s species are found on each individual continent. Which of the following is an exceptional animal that has a widespread distribution across most continents?
    ANSWER: The Norway rat
  28. 29. Which of the following statements about CAM and C4 plants is true?
    ANSWER: They both make use of the enzyme PEPcase
  29. 30. In comparing exponential and geometric growth, which of the following statements is true?
    ANSWER: Lambda can be calculated from r, and is equivalent to “e” raised to the r power
  30. 31. There are 80 swamp sparrows in a 20-hectare section of Mount Meadow. The population density of sparrows at this site is _____ per hectare.
    ANSWER: 4
  31. 32. In the CAM pathway, CO2 uptake occurs _______ and the Calvin cycle occurs _______.
    ANSWER: at night; during the day
  32. 33. In some trees and shrubs, competition among seedlings causes individuals to be spaced relatively evenly throughout the habitat. These plants exhibit a _______ type of dispersion pattern.
    ANSWER: regular
  33. 34. Suppose that researches are studying the life history of a population of gorillas, a species in which individuals can live for several decades. They can assess the ages of the gorillas with high accuracy, but because of funding constraints, they are limited to three years of study. Which of the following will the researches be able to construct?
    ANSWER: a static life table
  34. 35. Which of the following best explains why the mammal families in the Philippines are more similar to those in Africa, than to those in New Guinea?
    ANSWER: continental drift
  35. 36. Which population dispersion pattern is most commonly seen in the field for most species?
    ANSWER: clumped
  36. 37. Orchid species, who have lost their ability to photosynthesize, and instead parasitize fungi for their energy needs,  are an example of:
    ANSWER: holoparasites (also accepted hemiparasites – former is preferred answer)
  37. 38. Which of the following is the primary factor limiting the distribution of saguaro cacti in Arizona?
    ANSWER: low temperatures
  38. 42. Which of the following statements about the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) that emerged in the Four Corners region of the Southe Western United States is false?
    ANSWER: High levels of rainfall during the same year as the outbreak led to enhanced plant growth and thus high mouse densities
  39. 43. Which of the following terms refers to the physiologically-independent but genetically-identical plants?
    ANSWER: ramet
  40. 44. Which of the following is the technical term for a single genetic individual?
    ANSWER: genet
  41. 45. A continuous growing population of salamanders has had an intrinsic rate of increase of r=0.03 per year. There are currently 100 salamanders. How long before managers can tell the public this population has doubled in size?
    ANSWER: td = ln(2)/r-->ln(2)/0.03 = 23 years
  42. 46. In the process that takes place during the first step of photosynthesis, which is referred to as the “light reaction”?
    ANSWER: Water is split to provide electrons to synthesize ATP and NADPH
  43. 48. This ecologist performed some descriptive statistics and determined the variances were equal: therefore, she could calculate a pooled variance. If she then performed a students t-test, what would the degrees of freedom be to find the t critical value?
    ANSWER: d.f. = 5+5-2 = 8
  44. 49. The ecologist computed a t calculated of 1.987. She used a table of critical values and determined that t-critical = 2.306 for d.f. = 8 and α=0.05. Which of the following is false?
    ANSWER: She will commit a Type 1 error 95 changes out of 100, saying means are different when in fact, they are not, and incorrectly reject a true null hypothesis 95% of the time.
  45. 50. Ecologists try to reduce the likelihood that variables not under the control of the expiermenter will unduly influence the results of the experiement by:
    A. replicating each treatment, including the control
    B. assigning treatments to subjects or plots at random
    ANSWER: A and B
  46. 51. Which of the following statements is a null hypothesis?
    ANSWER: There is no difference in the average shell length of sea turtles in North Carolina compared to those in Florida.
  47. 52. In a mark-recapture study to estimate the size of a rodent population, researchers catch and mark 180 individuals. Two days later they again capture a number of rodents and find that 40% of the individuals are marked. Assuming that there have been no births, deaths, or migrations, which of the following is true? You can assume all calculations are correct.
    ANSWER: M/N = m/n --> 180/N = 40/100 --> N= (180 X 100)/40 = 450 rodents
  48. Melissa is awesome for this!
    True

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