bio 17

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bio 17
2012-11-18 18:20:32
bio psych

learning and memory 1
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  1. (case study) H.M
    • -suffered from severe form of epilepsy
    • *had surgery at age 27
    • **medial portions of temporal lobe both sides of brain removed along with hippocampus and amygdala
    • ***suffered from mild retrograde amnesia
  2. (case study) Clive wearing
    • -severe damage t hippocampus, amygdala, temporal and frontal lobe as result of encephalitis
    • *cannot sustain a memory longer than a minute
    • **unable to form memories
    • ***suffered from mild retrograde amnesia
  3. 2 types of amnesia
    -retrograde amenesia

    -anterograde amnesia
  4. (types of amnesia) Retrograde amnesia
    inability to recall events that occured prior to the onset of the amnesia
  5. (types of amnesia) Anterograde amnesia
    • inability to recall events that take place after the onset of amnesia.
    • *inability to form new memories
  6. (methods for characterizing anterograde amnesia) digit span +1 test
    -repeat 5 digits

    -on next trial add one number

    -keep adding one number till they make an error

    *most people can get up to 15. HM could not get past 8
  7. H.M and digti span test
    H.M performed well if was permitted to recall digitis immediately but not when he had to engage in another activty.
  8. Short term memory
    -lasts about 30 seconds

    -can be longer if allowed to rehearse

    -holds a limited number of items
  9. long term memory
    -enduring (can last hours, days, weeks, years)

    -large capacity
  10. 2 forms of memory
    longterm and shorterm
  11. findings showed that memory can form...
    independently from the areas that HM destroyed
  12. 2 types of long term memory
    -declarative and procedural
  13. Declarative long term memory (4)
    -facs and info acquired through learning

    -anchored in time and space

    -much aware of accessing this memory

    -memories that can be consciously discussed
  14. Procedural long term memory
    -recalled motor plans or skills

    -diificult to verbalize

    -demonstrated by performance

    -does not necessarily require consciousness

    • ex) how to ride a bike
    • *difficult to verbalize how
  15. H.M deficits in long term memories were from the...
    declarative memories
  16. H.Ms deficits appear to be due primarily to destruction of the _____ and ___________ ______.
    hippocampus , temporal lobe
  17. Patients with similar destrcution of the amygdala but intact hippocampus show,,,,
    no memory deficits
  18. Case study of R.B
    -went to hospital for bypass surgery

    • -suffered lost blood flow to brain
    • *when he recoverd he had ¬†anterograde amnesia

    • -when he died, analysis of his brain showed a very specific region of hippocampus damaged
    • *CA1
  19. Declarative memory and the hippocampus study
    -lesioning the hippocampus in monkeys greatly impairs delayed non-match to sample performance
  20. CAse study N.A
    • -suffered brain damage
    • *foil went up his nostril

    -displayed antergrade amnesia

    • -damage was to dorsal thalamus and mammillary nuceli
    • *they might provide a relay from temporal lobe to frontal lobe sturctures
  21. Korsakoffs syndrome (4)
    • -cannot recall many items or events of the past
    • *retrograde amnesia

    -patients do not feel comfrotable with info presented to them again or info that they cannot recall

    -they deny anything is wrong with them

    • -they often confabulate
    • *fill holes in their memory with falsifications
  22. what results in korsakoffs syndrome
    • -vitamin deficiency
    • *lack of thiamine

    • -common in alcoholics
    • *thye neglect their diet

    -some damage to hippocampus and temporal lobe

    • -damage to dorsomedial thalamus
    • *similar to Patient N.A
  23. sub categories within declarative memory
    semantic and episodic
  24. (declarative memeory sub categoreis) semantic 
    • -generalized memory such as meaning of a word
    • *without ¬†knowing when or where it was learned

    -not tied to a specific time or place
  25. (declarative memeory sub categoreis) epidosidc memory
    • autobiographical memory that eprtains to your own history
    • *ex) where and when i last saw my friend isaac
  26. case study K.C
    -suffered damage to his left frontal-parietal cortex and right parietal occipital cortex in a car accident

    • -K.C couldnt recall any personal memories from past
    • *however his semantic memories remains wuite good
    • **cannot acquire new epidodic knowledge
  27. lesions of the hippocampus ______ place ________ _______

    navigation learning

    • *cortical leasioned and control rats swam more around where the platform used to be
    • **hippocampal lesioned rats swam just as much but not ditinctly where the platform used to be