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which drug given for transplant patients can cause nephrotoxicity?
cyclosporine (increased BUN and Cr)
Long-term consequence of alkaptonuria
athritis due to homogenistic acid deposits in cartilage
tissue ischemia increases what levels in the cytoplasm and in the ECF?
- K+ in the ECF
- Na+ and Ca+ in the cytoplasm
* inhibits the Na/K pump *
New intestinal epithelial cells are produced from stem cells in what GI location?
crypts of lieberkahn
Epi has what actions on peripheral resistance, heart rate, and BP
- stimulates a and B receptors (but B2 at low doses)
- decreases resistance
- increases HR and PP
Kid presents with kyphoscoliosis and excessive laxity in the skin and bruises easily. Similar to what vitamin deficiency
Nodule composition in a cirrhotic liver
mechanism of tardive dyskinesias occuring with typical anti-psychotics
- 1. antagonizes central dopamine receptors, upregulates the receptors or H.S. to them long-term
- 2. decreases cholinergic tone
tx: stop anti-cholinergics
Differences between live attenuated and killed vaccines for active immunity
Live: longer Th1 (cell-mediated response), greater memory, greater mucosal IgA secretion
Calcium deposition in bone occurs with osteoblasts deposition hydroxyapetite in the bone matrix (collagen I). What else is required?
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions seen in hippocampal neurons
- painful swallowing, hydrophobia, ascending paralysis
Action of penicillins with aminoglycosides
- Pens inhibit the cell wall synthesis
- allows aminoglycosides to enter resistant cells and bind to the 30S subunit to inhibit protein synthesis
Arterial and venous supply for the dentate (pectinate) line
- above the line:
- IMA - sup rectal a.
- sup rectal v - inferior mesenteric v. - portal system
- below the line:
- internal iliac a - internal pudendal a. - inf rectal a.
- inf rectal v - internal iliac v - IVC
Mumps-induced orchitis can cause what?
leydig cell atrophy --> decreased testosterone
lumbar lordosis occurs due to extensive contraction of what muscles and extensive weakness of what muscles
- hip flexors
- weakness of hip extensors
hormones that are incretins
- GIP (gastric inhibitory peptide)
- GLP (glucagon-like peptide)
problem in fetus if mom takes ACE inhibitors during pregnancy
- decreased ang II = no renal development in fetus
- renal atrophy, oligohydramnios (no amniotic fluid as no urine), defective lung development, limb contractures
How do statins decrease LDL levels?
- inhibits cholestrol synthesis
- increases LDL receptor expression on the membrane, which causes receptor-mediated endocytosis (hepatocytes take up receptors from the blood)
ApoB-100 has a full form, and a truncated form which consists of 48% ApoB-100 known as ApoB48. Where are they expressed?
- apoB-100 = liver
- apoB-48 = intestine (acanthocytes)
How does penicillin and probenecid act together?
- probenecid inhibits the renal tubular secretion of penicillins, prolonging the drug in the body
- *cilastatin acts the same way with impinem* = inhibits renal brush border hydrolysis of impenem
composition of neurofibromas?
- disorganized proliferation of schwann cells, fibroblasts and neurites
- assoc: iris hamartomas, axillary freckling (Crowe's sign)
what composes crypt abscesses in colitis?
Affect of insulin on GLUT-4
translocates the protein to the cell membrane
Deltoid and trapezius attach laterally to the clavicle, and will pull a fractured clavicle in what directions
- deltoid: inferiorly and laterally
- trapezius: superiorly and medially
muscles that attach to the clavicle medially
- pectoralis major
inferiorly = subclavius
phage attaches - lytic cycle occurs and causes bacteria to split its parts up. phage particles can bind to the bacterial DNA parts when forming new phages.
infects new cells, doesn't change progeny
phage attaches to bacterial cell and invades into its host chromosome. when phage DNA is excised, can take out bacterial DNA parts too
infects new cells, no change in progeny
MCAD deficiency inheritance
- autosomal recessive
- only homozygotes suffer severe hypoglycemia
Location of psoas major
belong inguinal ligament, over the ala of the ilium and attaches to the lesser trochanter of the femur
- mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes causes instability
- predisposes to HNPCC (Lynch sydrome)
2nd most common cause of CMV in HIV patients after retinitis
- (abdominal pain, colonoscopy reveals mucosal erythema and multiple ulcers)
patient presents with lower extremity edema (but no liver, heart, or kidney failure) and has torturous veins on his abdomen. Obstruction of IVC or portal vein?
- IVC; veins are collateral venous circulation
- portal vein obstruction will present with ascites, hemorrhoids, etc. (liver cirrhosis)
- Widened mediastinum
- associated with aortic dissection = marfan's and uncontrolled HT
Leucine zippers, zinc binding motifs are what structures
- transcription factors
- can bind DNA binding sites or dimerize for DNA binding
G protein that stimulates membrane-bound phospholipid hydrolysis will increase what levels
DAG and IP3
Radiolabelled CO2 is used for what reactions
- de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis (occurs in the cytosol)
- after the first step, they are then used by the DNA in the nucleus
Common causes of psoas inflammation
what component of mycobacteria is responsible for the acid fast staining?
mycolic acid (cholestrol)
Patient with one parathyroid adenoma and 3 small, shrunken PTH glands. Mechanism
negative feedback of hyper calcemia on the 3 small glands
* loss of blood supply would occur with atrophic PTH glands *
Retinoid drugs bind to what receptors
nuclear receptors, and act like transcription factors
how does smoking increase risk for coronary heart disease
- 1. artherosclerosis
- 2. thrombotic occlusion (inhibits platelet aggregation)
anatomy structures at T10 and T12
- T10: esophagus, vagus trunks
- T12: descending aorta, thoracic duct
baby presents with decreased BG and lactic acidosis upon administration of fructose but no increase in BG. Dz?
- Von gierke's disease
- enzyme def: glucose-6-phosphatase
- no gluconeogensis/glycogenolysis
Findings of pontine hemorrhages
- pinpoint pupils
- loss of horizontal gaze
- decerbrate posturing
- rapidly evolving coma causing death
C. tetani cause what problem to the jaw
- 1st presentation
- constant muscle spasms leads to "lockjaw" (cannot open/close the jaw)
glycoprotein IIb/IIIa belongs to what class of receptors