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- Martin Luthur
- John Calvin
- Reject: sale of indulgences, nepotism, churchofficials pursuing personal wealth
- Belief: personal faith rather than Church practices and doctrines
- Council of Trent
- Jesuits: education, established school, effective missionaries, Ignatius of Loyola reassert the Catholic Church's supremacy.
- prominence of papal art comissions during the period
- sixteenth century
- associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Titian, exhibits an astounding mastery, both technical and aesthetic.
LEONARDO DA VINCI
Combination of art and science
Lots and lots of voluminous notes, liberally interspersed with sketches dealing with botanym geology, geography, cartography, zoology, military engineering, animal lore, anatomy, and physical science.
To discover the laws underlying the processes and flux of nature.
- LEONARDO DA VINCI, Virgin of the Rocks, 1485, oil on wood.
- - Central panel of an altarpiece for the chapel of the Confratermity of the Immaculate conception.
- - incorporates Masaccio's great discovery of chiaroscuro, subtle play of light and dark.
- - Two cheif objects: man and the intention of his soul.
- - pyramidal grouping, sharing the same environment
- - GROUNDBREAKING ACHEIVEMENT: the unified representation of objects in an atmospheric setting.
- - Madonna, Christ, John the Baptist and angel
- - atmospheric perspective
- LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, 1505
- - glowing ligh falls gently on the majestic forms, grandeur and balance
- - intellectual pictorial logic that results in an appealing visual unity
- - reminiscent the Phidian statues of goddesses in the Parthenon's pediments
- LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, 1495, Fresco, oil and tempera on plaster.
- - Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan
- - formally and emotionally his most impressive work
- - Christ and his twelve desciples are seated at a long table set parallel tothe picture plane in a simple room.
- - highly dramatic action by placing the group in an austere setting.
- - "One of you is about to betray me"
- - In the center, Christ appears isolated from the disciples and in perfect repose.
- - Central window at the back, above his head, frames his figure.
- - The pediment is the only curve in the architecture, and it serves as a halo.
- - Christ's head is the focal point of all converging perspective lines.
- - 4 groups of 3, united among and within themselves by their gestures and postures.
- - Judas is placed on the same side as Christ in order to create the pictoral and dramatice consistency
- - the motion is increasingly intense towards Christ.
- - The disciples' responses includes fear, doubt, protestation, rage and love.
- - silence of Christ is a powerful comminication device. - Last Supper and Leonardo's caeer leading up to it were at once a synthesis of fifteenth century artistic developments and a first statement of the Italian High Renaissance style during the early sixteenth century.
- LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, 1503, oil on wood.
- - most famous portrait
- - She appears in half-length view, her hands quietly folded and her gaze directed at observers.
- - chiarocuro and amoispheric perspective serve to disguise rather than reveal a human psyche.
- - smoky sfumato, the misty haziness, rendering the facial expression hard to determine.
- - back drop of a msterious uninhabited landscape.
- LEONARDO DA VINCI, Embryo in the Womb, 1510, pen and ink on paper.
- - His interst focused increasingly on scince in his later years.
- - He originated a method of scientific illustration, cutaway and exploded vies.
- DONATO D'ANGELO BRAMANTE, plan for the new Saint Peter's. 1505
- - Pope Julius I was an andividual whose interest affected the High Renaissance
- - the warrior pope
- - he is notable in his contriution in art, who commisioned a new design for St. Peter's basilica, construcion of his tomb, painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, and decoration of the papal apartments.
- - increasing sale of indulgences as a revenue.
- - the old building has fallen into despair, and does not fit the pope's taste.
- - He wants to make Italy more powerful, even more than the Rome of the Caears.
- - central plan church
- - Bramante designed the church to consist of a cross with arms of equal length, each terminated by an apse. A large dome covered the crossing, and smaller domes over subsidiary chapels.
- - complex interior
- - symmetrical
- - Nine interlocking crosses, fve supporting domes.
- - titanic scale