Animal Bodies and Homeostasis
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a stable internal body environment
A bunch of cells cooperating with each other to accomplish something.
4 types of tissue
skeletal muscle tissue
Linked bones in vertebrates via bundles of collagen fibers called tendons.
they generate force that leads to the contraction of the muscle.
locomotion, such as extending limbs or flapping wings. May be attached to skin producing facial expressions
Smooth muscle tissues
surrounds hollow tubes and cavities inside the body's organs, such that their contraction can propel the contents of those organs. Ex. s.m. propel partially digested food from stomach to intestines, where it can be digested fully.
Surroungs and forms part of small blood vessels and ariway tubes (bronchioles.) Contraction here reduces blood flow or movement of air.
It is involuntary
Cardiac muscle tissue
It is involuntary
It is found only in the heart
It provides the force that generates pressure sufficient to pump blood though an animal's body.
single nerve cell
Can be very short or very long
Muscle tissue primary function
Shorten or contract to produce body movement
nervous tissue primary function
initiate and conduct electrical signals from one part of an animal's body to another part
Epithelial tissue primary function
barrier and protection (line and cover hollow tubes and cavities)
Connective tissue primary function
Connect, anchor, and support
Epithelial cells SHAPES
cuboidal (cubed shape)
cells arranged in epithelial tissue as:
simple (one layer)
stratified (multiple layer)
pseudostratified (one layer, but with nucleic located in such a way that it appears stratified)
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
basal lamina (basement membrane)
the structural tissue side of ephithelial tissue
Cells in connective tissue secrete
extracellular matrix (ECM)
surrounds all of the cells and provides structural support
"ground tissue" meaning background tissue
2 types of proteins secreted by connective tissue cells when making ECM
a quaternary structure protein made up of 3 different alpha helices wound around each other. Very strong, yet flexible. Does not stretch and recoil as elastin does.
very stretchable, and able to recoil when tension is released
- fluid part of blood
- within blood vessels
fluid-filled spaces that surround cells
extracellular fluid composed of
plasma and interstitial fluid (more interstitial)
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