Animal Bodies and Homeostasis

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Animal Bodies and Homeostasis
2012-11-17 18:15:29
Chapter 40

Chapter 40
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  1. Homeostasis
    a stable internal body environment
  2. Tissue
    A bunch of cells cooperating with each other to accomplish something.
  3. 4 types of tissue
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
  4. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal
    • smooth
    • cardiac
  5. skeletal muscle tissue
    Linked bones in vertebrates via bundles of collagen fibers called tendons.

    they generate force that leads to the contraction of the muscle.


    locomotion, such as extending limbs or flapping wings. May be attached to skin producing facial expressions
  6. Smooth muscle tissues
    surrounds hollow tubes and cavities inside the body's organs, such that their contraction can propel the contents of those organs. Ex. s.m. propel partially digested food from stomach to intestines, where it can be digested fully.

    Surroungs and forms part of small blood vessels and ariway tubes (bronchioles.) Contraction here reduces blood flow or movement of air.

    It is involuntary
  7. Cardiac muscle tissue
    It is involuntary

    It is found only in the heart

    It provides the force that generates pressure sufficient to pump blood though an animal's body.
  8. neuron
    single nerve cell

    Can be very short or very long
  9. Muscle tissue primary function
    Shorten or contract to produce body movement
  10. nervous tissue primary function
    initiate and conduct electrical signals from one part of an animal's body to another part
  11. Epithelial tissue primary function
    barrier and protection (line and cover hollow tubes and cavities)
  12. Connective tissue primary function
    Connect, anchor, and support
  13. Epithelial cells SHAPES
    cuboidal (cubed shape)

    squamous (flattened)

    columnar (elongated)
  14. cells arranged in epithelial tissue as:
    simple (one layer)

    stratified (multiple layer)

    pseudostratified (one layer, but with nucleic located in such a way that it appears stratified)
  15. esophagus lining
    stratified squamous
  16. lungs
    simple squamous
  17. intestines
    simple columnar
  18. kidney tubules
    simple cuboidal
  19. nasal passage
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  20. basal lamina (basement membrane)
    the structural tissue side of ephithelial tissue
  21. Cells in connective tissue secrete
    extracellular matrix (ECM)

    surrounds all of the cells and provides structural support

    "ground tissue" meaning background tissue
  22. 2 types of proteins secreted by connective tissue cells when making ECM

  23. Collagen
    a quaternary structure protein made up of 3 different alpha helices wound around each other. Very strong, yet flexible. Does not stretch and recoil as elastin does.
  24. Elastin
    very stretchable, and able to recoil when tension is released
  25. plasma
    • fluid part of blood
    • within blood vessels
  26. interstitial fluid
    fluid-filled spaces that surround cells
  27. extracellular fluid composed of
    plasma and interstitial fluid (more interstitial)