drug distinguishing characteristics

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  1. nitroglycerine
    1st pass hepatic metabolism
  2. verapamil
  3. propranolol
    • most beta blockers end in lol or ol
    • paradoxical use in migraines
  4. digoxin
    • stimulates chemoreceptor trigger zones
    • visual disturbances
    • low margin of sagety
    • slows conduction in AV node
  5. atenolol
    single daily use
  6. lisinopril
    causes coughing and skin rash
  7. simvastatin
    • similar drugs end with statin
    • vary in potency, efficacy and duration of action
    • often cause myolysis
  8. warfarin
    • oral or IV
    • prevents formation of vitamin K dependant clotting factors
  9. heparin
    • ineffective orally
    • perscription IV or SC
    • measured in units rather than mg
    • derrived from animal proteins
    • allopecia
  10. clopidogrel
    • less gastritis and ulceration than aspirin
    • may cause hypertension
  11. furosemide
    • highly efficacious (high ceiling)
    • perscription oral and IV
  12. triamterene
    • k sparing
    • weak diuretic (low efficacy)
    • contributes to nephrolithiasis
  13. hydrochloro-thiazide
    • appears to cause some vasodilation
    • less efficacious and less potenet than loop diuretics but highly efficacious
  14. potassium
    • available in enteric coated tablets to prolong absorption time
    • often causes abdominal distress including vomiting and diarrhea
  15. codeine
    scheduled substace (2-5 depending on the dose)
  16. dextromethorphan
    • not scheduled
    • OTC
  17. phenylephrine
    • used in nasal spra
    • metabolized in the liver
    • one hour half life
  18. cetrizine
    mild muscarinic antagonist effect
  19. montelukast
    gastrointestinal discomfort
  20. albuterol
    • effective orally and via inhalation
    • hepatic metabolism
    • two hour half life
  21. epinephrine
    • metabolized at site of action and in plasma
    • ineffective orally, used IV or via inhalation
    • half life measured in minutes
  22. ipratropium
    quaternary ammonium group makes drug polar
  23. corticosteroids
    • steroid
    • sometimes used as alternate day therapy to diminish side effects
  24. levodopa
    • converted to dopamine in the brain
    • dopamine destroyed in the gut and doesnt cross BBB
    • dopamine is sympthomimetic
  25. sertraline
    must titrate does for optimum effect
  26. venalfaxine
    increase levels of serotonin, norepi, and dopamine in the central an dperipheral synapses
  27. phenytoin
    • hydantoin derivative (formerly known as diphenylhydantoin)
    • poor water solubility causes variable bioavailability
    • metabolized by cytochrom p450 system (induces CYP3A4 isoenzyme)
    • side effects: interferes with folate metabolism
    • causes gingival hyperplasia
    • may cause hirsutism
    • indications
    • partial seizures
    • generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  28. gabapentin
    • short half life
    • few side effects
    • indications: adjunct to other antiseizure drugs
  29. hydrocodone
    • scheduled substance (2-3)
    • tolerance upon repeated use
  30. acetominophen
    • both central and peripheral sites of action
    • hepatotoxic
  31. alprazolam
    • benzodiazapine
    • similar drugs : lorazepam, cloazepam, diazepam)

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drug distinguishing characteristics
2012-11-18 02:36:32

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