drug actions

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Author:
bbeckers88
ID:
184157
Filename:
drug actions
Updated:
2012-11-17 21:56:01
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pharm
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pharm
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  1. nitroglycerine
    • increase coronary blood flow, increased myocardial oxygen supply
    • decrease systemic blood pressure
    • decreased myocardial oxygen demand
    • ineffective orally- taken sublingual or percutaneous
    • headaches
    • hypotension
    • reflex tachycardia
    • short duration of action
  2. verapamil
    • reduces cardiac arhythmias by slowing conduction
    • decreased blood pressure by dilating arteries
    • reducing angina by reduced myocardial oxygen demand
    • headache by causing vasodilation
    • dizziness by causing hypotension
    • constipation by relaxing smooth muscle of the gut
    • muscle weakness by reducing skeletal muscle contraction
  3. propanolol
    • negative ionotropic and chronotropic effect
    • decrease cardiac output
    • decrease blood pressure
    • contraindicated in asthmatics
  4. digoxin
    • increase cardiac efficiency
    • increase renal perfusion and diuresis in edamatous patients
    • prevent ventricular fibrilation during atrial fibrilation
    • often monitored via clinical lab
  5. atenolol
    • negative ionoropic and chronotropic effect
    • decrease cardiac output
    • decrease blood pressure
    • contraindicated in asthmatics
    • easy outpatient medication
  6. lisinopril
    • vasodilation
    • decreased blood pressure
    • possible value in CHF
    • orthostatic hypotension
  7. simvastatin
    • diminished risk of coronary artery disease
    • myalgia
    • muscle weakness, sarcopenia,
    • myoglobinuria
    • ocassional renal dysfunction
  8. warfarin
    • only works in vivo
    • prevents or slows clot formation but doesnt reverse it
    • must monitor clotting times to avoid overdose
    • overdose causes excess bleeding and blood in the urine
    • what could you use to treat and overdose
  9. heparin
    • effective in and outside the body
    • hypersensitivity reactions
    • excess bleeding with overdose
  10. clopidogrel
    • reduces incidence of myocardial infaction
    • prevents peripheral vascular disease
  11. furosemide
    • heavy diuresis
    • naturesis
    • kaluresis
    • hypokalemia
    • dehydration
    • weakness
    • hypotension
    • treat CHF and edema
  12. triamterene
    • off sets kaluresis of other diuretics
    • alternative to potassium therapy
    • used with other potassium wasting diuretics
  13. hydrochloro-thiazide
    • diuresis
    • naturesis
    • kaluresis
    • used to treat edema
    • used to treat hypertension
  14. potassium
    • replacement therapy following diuresis
    • may produce hyperkalemia
    • excess may cause bradicardia
  15. codeine
    • sedation
    • constipation
    • tolerance
    • dependence if used for extended period
  16. dextromethorphan
    • occasional drowsiness
    • usually combined with other cough/cold medications
    • DM on label
  17. phenylephrine
    • constricts vessels in nasal passages
    • constrics vessels in systemic circulation
    • may vause hypertension
    • use with caution in hypertensive patients
  18. cetrizine
    • reduce histamine induced inflammation
    • drowsiness
    • dry mouth
    • mild bronchodilation
    • reduced secretions of nasal passages and upper airway
  19. montelukast
    • effective only during an asthma attack
    • reduces bronchoconstriction
    • reduces edema
  20. albuterol
    • bronchodilation
    • minimal tachycardia
    • no effects on secretions
    • stimulates beta 2 receptors throughout body
  21. epinephrine
    • rapid bronchodilation
    • tachycardia
    • vasoconstriction
    • emergency use such as anaphylaxix
  22. ipratropim
    • bronchodilation (reduced parasympathetic tone
    • xerostomia
    • xeropthalmia
    • constipation
    • mydriasis
    • no CNS side effects
  23. corticosteroids
    • hypoadrenalism
    • infections
    • CNS stimulation with insomnia
    • fludi retention
  24. levodopa
    • sympatheomimetic side effects
    • often given with carbidopa (a drug that prevents concersion of dopa to dopamine in periphery) to reduce sympathomimetic side effects
  25. setaline
    • similar action to other SSRIs
    • side effects related to serotonin activity
    • insomnia
    • headache
    • nausea
    • dry mouth
  26. venalfaxine
    • side effects related to all of the neurotransmitters
    • hyper or hypotension
    • tachycardia
    • insomnia
  27. phenytoin
    • accelerates metabolism of valproate, digoxin, steroids, vitamin K
    • monitor plasma levels especially when changing formulations
    • folate-related side effects and teratologies
  28. gabapentin
    • perscription several times daily
    • perscription broad spectrum of seizures
  29. hydrocodone
    • pain is less objectionable
    • depresses respiratory center, overdoes causes apnea
    • physical and psychological dependance
    • similar drugs like oxycodone and morphine
  30. acetominophen
    gastric distress major side effect

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