Orgo reactions

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Author:
XQWCat
ID:
184172
Filename:
Orgo reactions
Updated:
2012-11-18 00:41:31
Tags:
organic chem
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Description:
Addition reactions of alkenes
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  1. (alkene)  == + 2H --(Pt, Pd, Ni)->  ---  (alkane)
    • alkene + hydrogen --Pt, Pd, Ni)-->  alkane
    • adding 2H
    • syn addition
    • catalytic hydrogenation
  2. catalytic hydrogenation
    • (alkene)  == + 2H --(Pt, Pd, Ni)->  ---  (alkane)
    • alkene + hydrogen --Pt, Pd, Ni)-->  alkane
    • adding 2H
    • syn addition
  3. == + HX ---->  ---
    • alkene + hydrogen halide ---> alkyl halide
    • Markovnikov  (X adds to the carbon with more substitutions)
    • addition of hydrogen halides
  4. addition of hydrogen halides
    • == + HX ---->  ---
    • alkene + hydrogen halide ---> alkyl halide
    • Markovnikov  (X adds to the carbon with more substitutions)
  5. == + HOSO2OH ---> ---
    • alkene + sulfuric acid ---> alkyl hydrogen sulfate
    • Markovnikov (X adds to the carbon with less substitutions)
    • addition of sulfuric acid
  6. addition of sulfuric acid
    • == + HOSO2OH ---> ---
    • alkene + sulfuric acid ---> alkyl hydrogen sulfate
    • Markovnikov (X adds to the carbon with less substitutions)
  7. == + H-OH --acid (H+, H3O+)--> --- + alcohol
    • alkene + water --acid--> alcohol, alkane
    • Markovniknov (OH adds to the carbon with more substitutions)
    • acid-catalyzed hydration
  8. acid-catalyzed hydration
    • == + H-OH --acid (H+, H3O+)--> --- + alcohol
    • alkene + water --acid--> alcohol, alkane
    • Markovniknov (OH adds to the carbon with more substitutions)
  9. HX --peroxide--> ----
    anti-markovnikov (X adds to the carbon with less substitutions)
  10. alkene --B2H6, diglyme, H2O2--> alcohol
    • 2-step sequence anti-Markovnikov (OH adds to the carbon with less substitutions)
    • hydroboration-oxidation
  11. hydroboration-oxidation
    • alkene --B2H6, diglyme, H2O2--> alcohol
    • 2-step sequence
    • anti-Markovnikov (OH adds to the carbon with less substitutions)
  12. halogen (X2) --->  X-C-C-X
    • anti-addition
    • addition of halogens
  13. addition of halogens
    • halogen (X2) --->  X-C-C-X 
    • anti-addition
  14. === + X2 --H2O--> OH-C-C-X (halohydrin) + HX
    • alkene + halogen + water ---> halohydrin + hydrogen halide
    • OH goes to most substituted, X goes to least substituted
    • anti-addition
    • halohydrin formation
  15. Halohydrin formation
    • === + X2 --H2O--> OH-C-C-X (halohydrin) + HX
    • alkene + halogen + water ---> halohydrin + hydrogen halide
    • OH goes to most substituted, X goes to least substituted
    • anti-addition
  16. == + RCOOOH (peroxyacid)--> Epoxide + COOH
    • alkene + peroxyacid --->  Epoxide + Carboxilic acid
    • syn addition
    • Epoxidation
  17. Epoxidation
    • == + RCOOOH (peroxyacid)--> Epoxide + COOH
    • alkene + peroxyacid --->  Epoxide + Carboxilic acid
    • syn addition
  18. Ozonelysis
    • 2-step reaction
    • O3 ---> Zn/H2O ---> aldehyde (C=O O=C)
  19. O3 ---> Zn/H2O ---> aldehyde (C=O O=C)
    • 2-step reaction
    • Ozonelysis

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