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function of mucous membranes
- lines cavities open to outside world
- produce mucus to keep membranes moist
- made of ET and CT (areolar)
- ET varies depending on location-digestive, urinary, reproductive, respiratory
function and structure of serous membranes
- lines certain cavities and certain organs
- produces serous fluid for lubrication to reduce friction
- ET-simple squamous ET (mesothelium)
- name varies by location but structure does not
- Ex: pericardium, peritoneum and pleura
describe the process of being created
- 1. fertilization. zygote-1 cell
- 2. morula-forms by mitosis about 64 cells. This is a solid ball of cells
- 3. blastula-about 128 cells. Totipotent. these are used for stem cells
- 4. implantation-in the wall of the uterus
- 5. gastrulation-forming primary germ layers (1st tissues) ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
- 6. neurolation-ectoderm invaginates to for nervous system (dorsal hollow nerve cord)
- 7. Coelom forms by splitting mesoderm
- 8. organogenesis-begin organ formation
what do the primary germ layers become?
- ectoderm becomes CNS-also becomes epidermis
- endoderm lines everything from mouth to anus and respiratory tract and most of mucosa
- Mesoderm becomes all CT (mesenchyme), all MT, some ET, mesothelium, kidneys, etc
how do organs grow?
they either grow from endoderm tube or they grow from the body wall (mesoderm)
what is an omentum?
fold of peritoneum connecting organs to other organs or to the body wall.
stomach to transverse colon
stomach to liver
what is mesentery?
connects intraperitoneal gut tube organ to body wall
deals with small intestine
deals with large intestine
what is a ligament?
connect intraperitoneal organ to body wall
liver to diaphragm
liver to anterior body wall
reminant of umbilical cord
functions of cardiovascular system
- trasnport: oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, metabolic wastes, and hormones
- protection: clotting, immunity, maintain homeostasis, pH, temperature, solute concentration of interstitial fluid
- Maintain BP: kidneys (filtration) and erectile tissues
what type of blood does the right side of the heart pump
deoxygenated blood pumped to lungs
what type of blood does the left side of the heart pump?
receives oxygenated blood and pumps it to the body
what are the 3 layers of the heart wall and what are they composed of?
- Endocardium-simple squamous ET and a tiny bit of areolar CT
- Myocardium-cardiac MT
- Epicardium-visceral pericardium-serosa. Holds pericardial fat on the heart
what are the layers of the pericardial sac?
- 1. parietal pericardium-serosa
- 2. visceral pericardium-WFCT connects to diaphragm
- Pericardial cavity is filled with serous fluid
what holds the heart onto the diaphragm?
what is the function of trabeculae carneae?
found in ventricles to decrease turbulence/splashing of blood
what are the different semilunar valves, what are they composed of and what is their function?
- made of 3 flaps like parachutes
- prevent blood from flowing back into ventricles from arteries
- open when ventricles contract and close when ventricles relax.
- Pulmonary semilunar valve and aortic semilunar valve
what are the different atrioventricular valves, what are they composed of and what is their function?
- made of 2 or 3 cusps reinforced by chordae tendineae attached to papillary muscles
- prevent blood from flowing back into atria from ventricles
- right AV valve-tricuspid
- left AV valve-bicuspid/mitral
what is the cardiac cycle
- systole-ventricles contract-atria relax. AV valves close and semilunar valves open
- diastole-ventricles relax and atria contract. Semilunar valves close
describe the layers of a vein.
- tunica interna-simple squamous ET (endothelium) and a tiny bit of areolar CT
- tunica media-smooth MT
- tunica externa-areolar CT. Visible collagen and elastic fibers
what controls the diameter of a blood vessel?
the smooth muscle tissue in the tunica media
what is the difference between a vein and artery structurally?
arteries have elastic fibers in the internal elastic lamina and the external elastic lamina
what is the structural difference between a muscular and elastic artery?
elastic arteries have their entire tunica media filled with elastic CT
list some characteristics of an artery
- take blood away from the heart
- thicker tunica media compared to veins
- pressure reservoir-elastic CT
- 2 types: elastic and muscular
- arterioles regulate blood flow into a capillary bed
list some characteristics of a vein
- return blood to teh heart
- thicker tunica externa
- volume reservoir-larger lumen compared to wall
- venus valves enforce one way flow especially in limbs
- skeletal muscles pump blood
what are some possible problems with veins?
- varicose veins
- hemrroids (in anal canal)
list some charcteristics of capillaries
- site of exchange with tissues
- smallest blood vessels
- just endothelium and basement membrane
- blood cells go single file through lumen
- grow and regress as needed
- form capillary beds
- precapillary sphincters (smooth MT-open and close)
- most common and least leaky
- continuous with basement membrane
- lots of tight junctions, small intercellular celfts
- oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in or out
- active transport also possible
- Ex: dermis and lungs
- increased rate of exchange due to fenestrations in endothelial cells
- continuous basement membrane
- Ex: small intestine (absorption) and kidneys (filtration and absorption)
- most leaky
- allow large things like cells in and out
- huge fenestrations
- huge intercellular clefts
- discontinuous basement membrane
- Ex: liver and spleen, red marrow
what is the composition of blood
- plasma (ground substance and fibers) and formed elements (cells)
- plasma-55% formed elements-45%
what is plasma composed of? What are the specific proteins?
- proteins, water, and other solutes
- Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, etc.
what are the formed elements of blood?
platelets, WBCs (neutrophils) RBCs (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils)
what is the function of albumin
helps regulate osmotic balance and transport molecules
what is the function of globulins?
transport and immunoglobulins (Ab)
what is the function of fibrinogen?
can be converted to insouble fibrin which forms a web for a clot
what are some possible plasma proteins besides albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen?
hormones and enzymes
what are some of the other solutes in blood?
nutrients, gases, ions, wastes, hormones, etc
what do you call the percentage of formed elements in whole blood?
what is the process called by which formed elements (cells) are made and where are they coming from?
hemopoiesis and in red marrow and from pluripotent stem cells
what can a pluripotent stem cell turn into?
- proerythroblast-kicks out nucleus and becomes erythrocyte
- megakaryoblast-megakaryoctye (lives in red marrow)-platelets
what are the different agranulocytes?
- T lymphocytes
- B lymphocytes
- small, biconcave discs for flexibility and highest volume to surface area ratio
- anucleate-more room for hemoglobin which is the protein for oxygen and carbon dioxide transport
- only last about 120 days then they are phagocytized and parts are recycled in liver and spleen
how is blood type determined?
by the presence or lack of surface proteins
what are platelets, what is their function and how are they formed?
- fragments of megakaryocytes and their function is to form a clot. They get sticky, get caught in fibrin web and form a clot
- these last about 9 days (also recycled in liver and spleen)
what are leukocytes and what are their functions?
- all have nuclei
- they are about the size of a rbc
- their function is defense-hemotaxis (drawn towards chemicals)
- amoeboid movement
- these can live for years
what are the different granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
what is the structure and function of neutrophils?
- multilobed nucleus
- function is non specific phagocyte (esp. for bacteria)
- secrete lysozymes-splits bacteria
what is the structure and function of eosinophils?
- dark red granules, alien eyes, bilobed nucleus
- function is to attack parasitic worms by secreting chemicals, secrete histaminase (breaks down histamine) and phagocytize antigens that are bound to Ab
what is the function and structure of basophils?
- always larger than rbcs, veyr large dark granules hide nucleus, bumpy border, no light blue cytoplasm
- Function is to initiate inflammatory allergic response by secreting histamine and heparin
- divide to form mast cells
what is the function and structure of monocytes?
- huge, can be three times the diameter of rbc, large kidney shaped nucleus
- function is non specific phagocytes. they leave capillaries and become macrophages
what is the structure and function of lymphocytes?
- cant tell T cells from B cells. Large round purple nucleus. Some light blue cytoplasm
- Also found in lymphatic tissues
- Function is specific immune response-attack specific antigens
what are the different types of t cells and b cells?
- killer (cytotoxic ) T cell-assassins. Uses perforin
- B cells-go in disguise. Start dividing, form memory B cells and plasma cells (secrete Abs)
give the general characteristics of the lymphatic tissue
- fluid: lymph
- lymphatic vessels
- cells: lymphocytes and macrophages
- tissue: lypmhatic tissue, reticular CT and suspended cells
- lymphatic nodules: patches of lymph tissue
- lymphatic organs: more organized. Stroma and capsule (WFCT)
what are the functions of the lymphatic system?
- 2 functions-
- 1. immune function-pathogens and cancer cells-protection
- 2. Circulatory function-drain excess interstitial fluid and dumps it back into the blood which maintains BP and reclaims fluid and plasma proteins. Also transports dietary lipids from small intestine
what are the circulatory functions of the lymphatic system?
- fluid builds up and moves into a lymphatic caplillary (one way flow)
- Good=pick up fluid and plasma proteins
- bad=also can pick up pathogens and cancer cells (metastisis)
- Weird-lacteals (lymph capillaries of small intestine) carry chyle juice
how does lymph flow?
lymph capillary-lymphatic vessel-lymph node-lymphatic vessel-lymphatic duct then to right subclavian or left subclavian vein
where is lymph coming from if it dumps into the right subclavian vein?
right side of the body superior to the diaphragm. Goes from rt side of body sup. to diaphragm to the right lymphatic duct then to the rt. subclavian vein
where is the lymph coming from if it dumps into the left subclavian vein?
- The left side of the body sup. to the diaphragm. Goes from there to thoracic duct to left subclavian vein.
- Could also come from the body inferior to the diaphragm, then to cisterna chyli then to the left subclavian vein
what organs are associated with the immune function of the lymphatic system?
- primary lymph organs-for lymphatic production and maturation
- secondary lymph organs-site of immune response
describe primary lymph organs
- red marrow-lymphopoiesis and B cell maturation
- thymus-T cell maturation. This degenerates starting at puberty
describe secondary lymph organs
- look for capsule and stroma
- spleen-filters blood for pathogens and cancer cells and hemolysis and initiates immune response. Stores a pint of blood
- lymph nodes-filter lymph for pathogens and cancer cells
compare afferent vs. efferent lymphatic vessels
- afferent (cortex)
- lymphatic follicles-collections of many T cells. Germinal center with B cells and macrophages
- Cortical sinuses (where lymph moves through)
- efferent (medulla)
- medullary cords and medullary sinuses
what are the different lymphatic nodules and what are their functions?
- they filter and attack pathogens
- 1. Tonsils-survey saliva.
- 2. MALT-make sure E. Coli don't escape
- 3. GALT
- 4. Appendix
what are the different tonsils and where are they located?
- 1 pharyngeal tonsil (aka adenoid) in nasopharynx
- 2 palantine tonsils in oropharynx
- 2 lingual tonsils in oropharynx
define MALT and give an example
- mucosa associated lymphatic tissue in areolar CT
- Ex: Peyer's patches in ileum. Make sure E. Coli don't escape
define GALT and give an example
gut associated lymphatic tissue
- Lymphatic nodule
- hangs off cecum
- filled with E. COli. It surveys the feces, generates memory lymphocytes and acts as a reservoir for E. Coli
what is the function of the nervous system?
communication, control and coordination
what do neurons do?
generate electrical impulses
what is the general anatomy of the nervous system?
- cells: neurons and neuroglia
- Tissue: NT (gray matter and white matter)
- Organs: brain and spinal cord (CNS) and ganglia and nerves (PNS)
what are the 2 subdivisions of the PNS and what are their general functions?
- sensory division: gathers info and sends it to the CNS
- motor divison: carries info from the CNS and sends it to effectors (mucles or glands)
WHat are the subdivisions of the sensory division of the PNS?
- general senses: touch, pain, pressure, proprioception, temperature and stretch
- special: smell, vision, hearing, taste, equilibrium
What are the subdivisions of the motor division of the PNS?
- Somatic division-voluntary. Effectors are skeletal muscle tissues. Conscious control and subconscious control
- Autonomic division-involuntary. Runs independently. Effectors are glands, smooth MT, cardiac MT, and adipose CT
what are the subdivisions of the autonomic division?
How does information flow in the nervous system?
- sensroy function: begins at sensory receptor which detects both internal and external stimuli. Pass info to the CNS in a sensory neuron.
- Integration by interneurons (confined to CNS) Judgement is made whether to respond and if so, how? These issue a command
- Motor function: info/command is carried from CNS to effector(s) by motor neruons and the effector responds
what is a reflex arc and what is its function
Pathway followed by information to perform a reflex (a rapid, automatic response to a stimulus-somatic or autonomic)
describe neurons and their functions
- amitotic once mature
- cell body with organelles including nissl bodies
- dendrites-info toward cell body
- axon-info away from cell body and attaches at axon hillock and ends at synaptic knob
- synapse-point of communication between synaptic knob of a neuron and some other cell (a neuron or effector)
what is a neurons structure related to its function?
- Function-general sensory. Structure-unipolar
- function-special sensory. Structure-bipolar
- Function-interneuron. Structure-multipolar
- Function motor-somatic or autonomic-multipolar
What are the different neuroglial cells in the CNS?
- Ependymal cells
- Microglial cells
What is the function of astrocytes?
- most abundant
- Hold on to neurons and to capillaries with their perivascular feet
- Offer physical support since there is no CT in the CNS.
- Form blood brain barrier
what is the function of ependymal cells?
- line ventricles and central canal
- Modified simple cuboidal ciliated ET
- In ventricles-they cover choroid plexus to help filter the blood to make CSF
- In central canal of spinal cord, they circulate the CSF
what is the function of microglial cells?
Wandering macrophages of the CNS
what is the function of oligodendrocytes?
processes wrap around different axons. Myelin sheath (multiple laters of plasma membrane) electrically insulates the axon. this speeds up rate of conduction
what makes white matter, white?
what are the different neuroglial cells in the PNS?
- Schwann cells
- satellite cells
what is the function of schwann cells?
wraps its entire self around one part of an axon. Nucleus is at periphery
what is the function of satellite cells
surrounding cell bodies in ganglia and these regulate the exchange of nutrients and wastes. Found in dorsal root ganglia
what are the different myelin possibilites?
- 1. myelinated in CNS by oligodendrocytes
- 2. myelinated in PNS by schwann cells
- 3. Unmyelinated in CNS (naked)
- 4. Unmyelinatedd in PNS but still protected by neurelemma (of schwann cells)
describe the different types of nervous tissue in the CNS
- white matter-myelinated axons
- Tracts-bundles of myelinated axons to/from same location
- gray matter-unmyelinated axons, cell bodies and dendrites.
- Increase surface area to pack in neurons (especially in cortex)
- In spinal cord-horns. In brain-cortex or nuclei
describe nerves and their functions
- bundle of axons in PNS (both myelinated and unmyelinated)
- Sensory, motor or mixed
- 2 groups:
- cranial nerves-attach to brain (12 pairs)
- spinal nerves-attach to spine (31 pairs)
describe the anatomy hierarchy of the nervous system
- Myelin sheat (if present)
- perineurium (areolar/WFCT)
- Epineurium (WFCT) continuous with the dura mater surrounding brain and spinal cord
describe spinal nerves and how many are there in each category
- they exit through intervertebral foramina
- Each spinal nerve innervates one myotome (group of muscles) and/or one dermatome (skin region)
- 8 pairs of cervical
- 12 throacic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 1 coccygeal
What are the different plexi and what nerves are part of each?
- 1. Cervical-phrenic nerve
- 2. Brachial-median, ulnar and radial nerve
- 3. Lumbar-femoral nerve-->saphenous nerve
- 4. Sacral-sciatic nerve-->tibial and common fibular
what is the function of the spinal cord?
- Information hwy
- Vertical tracts: lin brain to PNS (via spinal nerves-both sensory and motor info)
- Integration-especially for reflexes (when must respond rapidly)
What are some different structures/characteristics that help to protect the CNS?
- 1. Bone
- 2. CSF (srruounds CNS organs)
- 3. Meninges-CT Coverings. (Cranial and spinal)
- 4. Denitculate ligaments-extensions of pia mater that anchor to dura mater
- 5. Filum terminale-pia and dura mater anchor to coccyx
What are the different meninges and what are they composed of?
- 1. Epidural space-Areolar and adipose CT
- 2. Dura mater-WFCT
- 3. Subdural space-potential, tiny space
- 4. Arachnoid-elastic fibers and collagen. Delicate web
- 5. Subarachnoid space-CSF
- 6. Pia mater-areolar CT. Stuck on to spinal cord
what will you find in the posterior gray horns?
cell bodies of interneurons
What will you find the lateral gray horns?
autonomic preganglionic cell bodies
what will you find the anterior gray horns?
somatic motor cell bodies
what will you find in the anterior funiculli?
somatic motor and general sensory tracts
what will you find in the posterior funiculli?
contain general sensory tracts
what will you find in the lateral funiculli?
general sensory, somatic motor and autonomic motor tracts
How did the brain develop?
- 1. Dorsal hollow nerve cord from ectoderm
- 2. Anterior ends grow and divides into 3 pairs of primary vesicles
- 3. these three continue to grow and divide into 5 pairs of secondary vesicles
- 4. Telencephalon does the rams horn thing and ventricles follow
- 5. Gray matter migrates away from ventricles
What are the different secondary vesicles associated with brain development?
Telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myencephalon
What is the white matter of teh cerebrum?
- 3 patterns seen:
- 1. Commissural tracts: connect left adn right cerebral hemispheres. Ex: corpus callosum
- 2. Association tracts: connect gyri within one hemisphere
- 3. Projection tracts: connect cerebral cortex to another region of CNS (up or down) Pyramidal pathway, corona radiata, internal capsule
What makes up the limbic system
- Emotional center of brain.
- Projects to hypothalamus (ANS response) and to cerebral cortex (coordinate with thought)
- Hippocampi-encode and retriece long term memory
- Mammillary bodies-relay station of smell. COnnect to hippocampi via the fornix
- Amygdala-perceive fear, help encode memory (related to emotion)
What makes up the reticular formation?
- Network of gray matter, mostly in brainstem
- Projects down to spinal cord (for muscle tone) and to hypothalamus (ANS response) and to cerebral cortex (alertness)
- Reticular activating system-sensory component. Responds to arouse us from sleep and maintains consciousness (arousal)
what does the circle of willis demonstrate?
Describe the dural venous sinuses
- cranial dura mater has no epidural space but it does have two layers to it:
- Periosteal layer (against skull)
- Meningeal layer (deeper)
- Usually fused by split in some places. Where they split is called the dural venous sinus and there are 5 of them!
what are the 5 dural venous sinuses?
- 1. Superior sagittal sinus (in falx cerebri)
- 2. Inferior sagittal sinus (in falx cerebri)
- 3. Occipital sinus (in falx cerebelli)
- All of these end at the confluence of sinuses then out...
- 4. transverse sinus (in tentorium cerebelli)
- 5. Sigmoid sinus
- then out the jugular foramen into the jugular vein
Give the general characteristics of the different pathways in the nervous system
- Chain of 2-3 neurons
- sensory pathway (ascending) or motor pathway (descending)
- All are paired and most decussate (right controls left and vice versa)
- Named for origin and destination
- Exhibit somatotopy (Ex: motor and sensory homunculi)
- We do 5 pathways-2 motor and 3 sensory
What are the three sensory pathways?
- 1. Posterior funiculus pathway
- 2. Spinothalamic pathway
- 3. Spinocerebellar pathway
What are the two motor pathways?
- 1. Pyramidal pathway (corticospinal)
- 2. Extrapyramidal pathway
Descrcibe the posterior funiculus pathway
- Begin at sensory receptors
- Info: discriminative touch, pressure, vibration, and conscious proprioception
- Receptors: meissner's corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles, joint receptors
- 3 Neurons:
- 1. Synapses and decussates in medulla
- 2. Synapses in thalamus
- 3. Post central gyrus
Descrcibe the spinothalamic pathway
- Start at sensory receptor
- Info: nasty pathway. Itch, pain, temperature
- Receptors: free nerve endings
- 3 neurons:
- Synapses and decussates in the spinal cord
- Then thalamus
- then the post central gyrus
Describe the spinocerebellar pathway
- Start at sensory receptors
- Info: subconscious proprioception
- Receptors: Muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs
- 2 neurons:
- Synapses in spinal cord
- To cerebellar cortex
Describe the corticospinal/pyramidal pathway
- Begins in gray matter of brain (cortex on nucleus)
- Info: conscious control of skeletal muscle tissue
- Origin: Pyramidal cells in precentral gyrus
- 2 Neurons
- Pyramidal cell (upper motor neuron) multipolar interneuron
- Somatic motor neuron (lower motor neuron)
describe the extrapyramidal pathway
- Begins in gray matter of brain (cortex of nucleus)
- Info: Subconscious control of skeletal muscle tissue
- Origin: basal nuclei, midbrain, etc.
- Multiple pathways
Describe the parasympathetic effects
- Constricts pupils (smooth MT of iris)
- stimulates lacrimal and salivary glands
- Decreases heart rate and beat force
- Constricts airways (smooth MT)
- Stimulates glands and smooth MT of digestive tract/organs
Describe the sympathetic effects
- Dilate pupils
- Stimulate eccrine sweat glands and arector pili muscles
- Dilate or constrict blood vessels
- increase heart rate and beat force
- Dilates airways-bronchodilation
- Adrenal glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine