Social Psychology Vocab. II

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Social Psychology Vocab. II
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Social Psychology Vocabulary
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Social psychology vocabulary for chapters 11, 12, and 13.
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  1. Aggression
    Behavior, either verbal or physical, that is used to intentionally harm another individual.
  2. Hostile (Affective) Aggression
    A behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is to make the victim suffer. (Individuals who participate in emotional aggression, then, are simply seeking to harm or injure the target of their attack) - for example, boxing. The goal is suffering for the victim.
  3. Instrumental Aggression
    A behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is not to make the victim suffer, but to attain a non-injurious goal. (An individual who participates in instrumental aggression, will harm or injure another as a way of obtaining various rewards such as control of a situatioon or improved self-esteem) - for example will be football. thegoal is "non-injurious" but the acts serve a different purpose
  4. Direct Aggression
    An action or behavior that is clearly derived from the aggressor and is aimed directly at the target. Punching, pushing, yelling, and using insulting language.
  5. Indirect Aggression
    An action or behavior that is not clearly derived from the aggressor, and where it is not obvious to the target that he or she has been the victim of aggression. (Spreding rumors and gossiping, creating social isolation, or framing others for something they did not do).
  6. Expressive View of Aggression
    A method of aggression in which aggression is used as a way to express anger and reduce stress. 
  7. Culture of Honor
    A culture in which strong norms suggest that aggression is an appropriate response to an insult or threet to one's honor. “Honor killings"
  8. Frustration
    A feeling of being upset or annoyed by the inavility to reach a goal or perform an activity.
  9. Frustration-Aggression Theory
    (Dollard et al., 1939) A theory stating that frustration precedes aggression because our motivation for aggression increases when our current behavior is interrupted or we are prevented from reaching a goal. Tend to be more aggresive with external cues.
  10. Cognitive-Neoassociation Theory
    A theory that suggest that when a person experiences something with a negative result, such as pain or discomfort, aggressive behavior can often occur in the wake of  that experience.
  11. Social Learning Theory
    A theory that suggests that human aggression is largely learned by observing the aggressive behavior of other people and is reinforced by consequences such as punishment or reward in the individual's enviroment.
  12. Modeling
    A process by which a person mimics another's behavior.
  13. Instinct Theory
    A theory in which aggression is an innate and inevitable.
  14. Reinforcement
    An action or process that strengthens a behavior. An action or process that strengthens a behavior. A reward. We often think of aggression as being punished, but often it is rewarded. Reinforcement comes from different sources -Parents, peers, television, video games, movies
  15. General Aggression Model (GAM)
    A theory that builds on the social learning thoery and provides a more integrative framework for specific theories of aggression by including situational and persoanl variables.
  16. Aversive Experience
    An undersirable experience that may include pain, discomfort, overcrowding, or attack.
  17. Desensitization
    When physiological reactions to violence are reduced as a result of repeated exposure.
  18. Albert Bandura
    Developed social learning theory, also refferred to as social cognitive thoery during the 1960's. (and colleagues) used the now famous Bobo doll to demonstrate how children can learn aggressive behavior by watching adults.Two processes by  which aggression can be learned are imitation and reinforcement.
  19. GAM
    General Aggression Model - Situational factors are elements of the present situation that increasess aggression - for example, factos such as verbal insults, the presence of a weapon, the presence of an intimidating figure, and overall frustration or discomfort. GAM suggests three routes of influnce: affective state, cognitive state, and arousal state. Two types of input can trigger blatant aggression. Factors related to the current situation. Factors related to the individual (personal factors). Situational factors must affect the affective, cognitive, and arousal states. The personal factors can then lead to thoughtful or impulsive (aggressive) actions.
  20. Need for affiliation
    The desire to astablish and maintain rewardinh interpersonal relationship. Desire to make and keep close personal relationships. Those with close friendships have better health than those without. Our psychological and social health is also better. The brain may register social pain as it does physical pain.
  21. Proximity
    • The physical closeness between two people; the smaller the physical distance, the more likely the two people will experience repeat contact, which could lead to the developement of mutal attraction.Smaller proximity leads to more repeated contacts and mutual attraction. (the
    • actual geographical location and physical distance influence relationships.)
  22. Mere Exposure
    The hypothesis that the mere repeated exposure of an individaul to a stiulus is enough for an increase in favorable response to that stimulus.
  23. Matching Hypothesis
    Erving Goffman (1952), the hypothesis that people are morelikely to form longstanding relationships with others whose social attributes match with theirs and with those who are similar in physical attractiveness.
  24. Proportion of Similarity
    An equation that divides the number of toics on which two people express similar views by the total number of topics on which they have communicated resulting in a prediction of attraction.
  25. Repulsion Hypothesis
    Rosenbaum's (1986), States that similarity doesn't actually have any effect on attraction. Instead, suggests that people are repulsed by dissimilarity. We aren’t attracted to similarity, but we are repulsed by dissimilarity.
  26. Reciprocity
    The exchange of what we recieve for what we get, which can include liking those who like us back. If we find out that someone likes us, we tend to like them back. It is not an absolute rule. Can lead us to be more self-disclosing. This, in turn, leads to higher levels of trust.
  27. Attachment Style
    The degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships. Attachment is the degree of security experienced in a relationship. Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby were pioneers in this areaBowlby – self-esteem and interpersonal trust (IPT). IPT – the extent to which we believe that people are trustworthy and reliable
  28. Interpersonal Trust
    Involves the belief that people are generally trustworthy and dependable as opposed to the opposite and is the attitude that underlines the development of attchment sytles.
  29. Secure Attachment Style
    The most successful of the attachment styles, characterized by high self-esteem and high interpersonal trust (belief that people are generally trustworthy). High in self-esteem, high in interpersonal trust, most successful style, forms long-lasting and satisfying relationships. People with this style tend to form lasting and satisfying relationships over the courses of their lives.
  30. Fearful-Avoidant Attachment Style
    The most insecure of the attachment styles, characterized by low self-esteem and low interpersonal trust (belief that people are generally trustworthy). Low in self-esteem, low in interpersonal trust, unable to form close relationships, relationships are not fulfilling. People with this style are usually unable to form close relationships, or their relationships are not fulfilling.
  31. Preoccupied Attachment Style
    A conflicted, insecure attachment style characterized by low self-esteem and high interpersonal trust (belief that people are generally trustworthy).  Low in self-esteem, high in interpersonal trust, self-destructive, craves closeness, expects to be rejected. The preoccupied attachment style can be seen as a bit self-destructive, as for all of their craving for closeness, people with this style expect to be rejected because they believe thay are not worthy of attention or love.
  32. Dismmissive Attachment Style
    A conflicted, insecure attachment style characterized by high self-esteem and low interpersonal trust (belief that people are generally trustworthy). High in self-esteem, low in interpersonal trust, expects the worst out of other people, fearful of getting too close. The high self-esteem leads people to believe they are worthy of good relationships, but the low levle of interpersona trust means they expect the worst of others and therefore are fearful of getting close to people.
  33. Passionate Love
    Elaine Hatfield (1988) a state of intense longing for union with another. Characterized by intense longing for one's partner, thrilling, roller-coaster of emotions, first experienced in adolescence, can be triggered by scary or intense experiences, often present at the beginning of a romantic relationship.
  34. Excitation Transfer
    The process by which arousal from one stimulus, a scary movie or a roller coaster, can be transferred to the second stimulus, a person. Dutton and Aron (1974) in which male passerby were contacted by an attractive female interviewer either on a fear-arousing suspension bridge or a non-fear-arousing bridge. Dolph Zillmann (1983) proposed that excitement (or arousal) at one point in time can be transferred to aggression at another point in time. A good workout can produce physiological effects similar to aggression. If an incident occurs in close proximity in time to the workout, the physical effects can be transferred into aggression.
  35. Triangular Theory of Love
    Robert Sternberg's (1986, 1997) theory that love is made of three components:Intimacy (feelings of closeness and connectedness), passion (physical attraction and sexual consummation), and commitment (both in the decision that one loves another and to maintain the love).
  36. Sternberg's Trangular Theory of Love
    • Through different arrangemtns of three basic commponents of love (intimacy, commitment, and passion), eight distinct types of love can be experienced.
    • Style 1: Non-Love (none of the three componnets are present)
    • Style 2: Liking (intimacy [feelings of closeness and connectedness])
    • Style 3: Companionate Love (intimacy [feelings of closeness and connectedness] + commitment [both in the decision that one loves another and to maintain the love])
    • Style 4: Empty Love (commitment [both in the decision that one loves another and to maintain the love])
    • Style 5: Fatuous Love (passion [physical attraction and sexual consummation] + commitment [both in the decision that one loves another and to maintain the love]
    • Style 6: Infatuation (passion [physical attraction and sexual consummation])
    • Style 7: Romantic Love (intimacy [feelings of closeness and connectedness] + passion [physical attraction and sexual consummation])
    • Style 8: Consummate Love (intimacy [feelings of closeness and connectedness] + passion [physical attraction and sexual consummation] + commitment [both in the decision that one loves another and to maintain the love])
  37. Social Exchange Theory
    (Thibaut & Kelley, 1952, 1959) An economic modle of human behavior in which people make decisions based on maximizing benefits and minimizing coasts in relationships. People seek out and maintain those relationships in which the rewards exceed the costs. This theory suggests that behavior of socialized persons is purposive, or goal oriented, and not random. People repeat behaviors that are rewarded and avoid those that go unrewarded. If reciprocity does not exist (if nothing is received in return) a relationship will likely terminate.
  38. Equity Theory
    (Walster, Walster, & Traupmann, 1978) Theory that relationships are mostly satisfying when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar for both partners.
  39. Investment
    (Rusbult, 1983, 1991) Those resources that have been devoted to a relationship that cannot be retrieved.
  40. Exchange Relationship
    A relationship in which partners expect strict reciprocity. Usually limited to strangers and casual acquaintances, or between business partners.
  41. Communal Relationship
    A relationship in which partners expect mutual responsiveness to one another's need. Exist between close friends, romantic partners, and family members. In these relationships, people seek to take care of one another withou expecting anything in return.
  42. The Four Horsemen
    • John Gottman identified four conflic styles that can bring abou the end of a relationship.
    • Criticim: Attacking one's partner or aspects of the relationship. Example - "You never think about how I feel. You just do whatever you want!"
    • Contempt: Acting as if one is repulsed by his or her partner. Example - "You're the laziest person I've ever met."
    • Defensiveness: Protecting oneself over all else, making excuses. Example - "You know how busy I've been. Why didn't you just call the restaurant yourself instead of expecting me to do it?"
    • Stonewalling: Emotional withdrawal and refusal to communicate. Example - "I'm just too busy to talk about this right now."
  43. Negative Attributional Style
    Occurs when a person explains his or her partner's behaviors in negative ways.
  44. Personal Growth After a Break-up
    • Person positives: Development of sttitudes such as greater confidence in what experiences you can handle.
    • Relational possitives: Lessons about yourself in relation to others, such as learning relationship skills or knowing not to let yourself fall so hard so quickly.
    • Environmenta Positives: The world around you.
  45. Prosocial Behavior
    Behavior designed to help another person.
  46. Egoistic
    Having a selfish motivation for helping. Helps yours self feel better. Motivated by the desire to increase one’s own welfare. Egoism encourages helping because of a concern about the costs to one’s self if help is not provided. Egoism seeks to reduce personal distress. Egoism highlights the potential rewards for helping others.
  47. Altruistic
    Having a selfless motivation for helping. Helps others witout thinking about yourself. Motivated by the desire to increase another’s welfare.Empathy-altruism model of prosocial behavior. We are more likely to help others’ whose welfare is threatened. This can occur even when there are great costs to the helping person. Some argue that there is no "true" self-less help, while others contend that this can occur.
  48. Morally Cleansing
    Engaging in actions that restore, in one's own mind, the proper moral order.
  49. Negative State Relief Model
    A model positing that the reason people help others is to improve their own negative mood.
  50. Empathy
    Having compassion for others and a feeling of seeing the world through the eyes of another individual.
  51. Cost-Benefit Analysis
    The act of weighing the relative costs and benefits of helping to deide whether or not to provide the help.
  52. Empathy-Altruism Model Of Prosocial Behavior
    A model suggesting that true altruism is a product of empathy (having compassion for others and a feeling of seeing the world through the eyes of another individual); this empathy can create nurturing feelings toward a targer or a goal to increase the target's welfare.
  53. Reciprocity Norm
    The idea that if others help us, we should help them, and that if we help them, they will help us. In a study done by Dunfield and Kuhlmeier (2010), babies were introduced to two actress. In this way, babies remembered an attempt at helful behavior and returned the favor thus supporting the idea of the reciprocity norm.
  54. Social Responsibility Norm
    The idea that we have social responsibility to help others; the extent to which this extends to outgroup members varies by culture.
  55. Kin Selection
    The tendency of people to hlep their biological relatives over nonfamily members, even at great cost to themselves, thus favoring the reproductive success of one's relatives over his or her own sruvival. This is illustrated by Vasey and VanderLann's 2010 study on Somoan homesexual men. Those men called fa'afafine in Somoa, indirectly contribute to the survival prospects of their family's genes by offering help and support to their nieces and nephews. Burnstein, Crandal, and Kitayama (1994) found that study participants were more likely to hlep individuals who were genetically related to them, especially in life-or-death situations.
  56. Decision Model of Bystander Intervention
    • The model derived by Bibb Latane and John Darley that explains the five steps required to provide help to somone in need and what can interfere with successful completion of each of these steps.
    • 1. Notice the emergency: Your hear the victim's screams. Obstacles - You don't notice because you're thinking about the argument you had with a friend, or you're busy watching your favorite TV show. Concerns about oneself can therefore effect whether or not a need for help is noticed. Proximity (the physical closeness between two people) to the event and vividness of the even also can contivute to wheter or not the need is recognized.
    • 2. Interpret the situation as requiring help: Your hear the victim cry for help. Obstacles - The situation is ambiguous; it could just be your neighbors arguing. Also, if your other neighbors aren't interfering, nothing is probably wrong to begin with. Bystander inaction in a potential emergency is called Pluralistic ignorance. In Latane and Darley's 1968 study, particpants were palced in a room to anser a questionnaire. As they did, smoke began streaming in the room. When participants were alone, 75 percent reported the smoke.
    • 3. Feel personal responsibility to help: You know you would want help in the same situation. Obstacles - If you can hear them, your neighbors can too, and surely someone else will take action so there's no need for you to get involved.
    • 4. Decided how to help: Would intervening or calling 911 be the best way to help? Obstacles - You don;t know how to help. You'll feel embarrassed if the police show up for no real reason and you certainly don't want to risk becoming a second victim of an attack. If an obvious solution presents itself, people are more likely to provide effective help; however, if they do not know how to help or do not think that they could execute the helping act, they are less likely to do so. If soemone is unsure of how to help, she may hesitate to act or be embarassed to try to act. Men tend to be morelikely to hlep in "heroic" ways - assisting with car trouble or rescuing a drowning child. Women tend to help in more long-term, nurturing ways, such as providing emotional support or taking in an elderly parent.
    • 5. Provide the help: To ensure your personal safety as well, you decide to dial 911. The actual provision of help. In doing this, bystanders must consider a variety of factors, including how to implement their chosen way of helping. Consider their own safety, if direct intervention [to come between disputing people, groups] is possible then it ought to be done, and don't risk your life instead call 911.
  57. Getting by with a Little Help from Your Friends
    • Egoistic Theory: Will comforting my upset friend make me feel better? Do the benefits outweigh the costs?
    • Altruistic Thoery: Will comforting my friend stisfy my instinct to be nurturing and my desire to improve her well-being?
    • Norms-Based Theory: Will my friend be there for me in the future when the roles are reversed? Is it my social responsibility as a friend to offer a shoulder to cry on?
    • Evolutionary Theory: Is this friend also related to me? Would hleping her essentially be helping our family?
  58. Bystander Effect
    Aphenomenon in which as more people are present, each individual is less likely to help. In Darley and Latane's 1968 study examining the bystander effect, particpants were exposed to the sounds of another student having an epilieptic seizure. These sounds made very clear what was happening and that help was needed. Participants who were alone were faster to report the emergency than those who believed they were in the company of  otheres-they were not actually able to see these others, but believed they were nearby.
  59. Diffusion of Responsibility
    A decreased feeling of responsibility to help in a group; if an emergency arises in a group setting, it is less likely that any one person will help than if someone was witnessing the emergency alone, because being in a group decreases each person's feeling of personal responsibility to help. This process occurs when a bystander does not take action to help because other persons share the responsibility for intervening. This occurs at the third step in the process of deciding to help. If others are present, personal responsibility to act is diminished the number of others present.
  60. Altruistic Personality
    A proposed personality composite consisting of five traits, each of which correlates positively with helping behavior: Empathy [having compassion for others and a feeling of seeing the world through the eyes of another individual], internal locus of control, belief in a just world [people have to believe the world is fair and adjust their other beliefs to maintain that stance by concluding that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people], a sense of social responsibility [the idea that we have social responsibility to help others], and low egocentrism.
  61. Elightenment Effect
    The effect wherein learning about how humans fall prey to obstacles to helping can aid us in overcoming those obstacles in the future; it extends to benefits from learning about other human biases.
  62. Which of the following situations is an example of hostile (affective) agression?
    A. A baseball player rushes the pitcher's mound after being hit by a ball.
    B. A football player knocks own a reciver after he catches the ball.
    C. A soccer player steps on the foot of an official while going for the ball.
    D. A basketball player elbows an opponent in the eye after a rebound.
    A. A baseball player rushes the pitcher's mound after being hit by a ball.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. What group would most likely be the target of aggression?
    A. Men
    B. Teens
    C. The elderly
    D. Women
    D. Women
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Which of the following is an examle of indirect aggression?
    A. A noticeable snub at a party
    B. A rumor that is told in secret
    C. A verbal insult to a person's face
    D. A punch in the stomach
    B. A rumor that is told in secret
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. What is the flaw in the instinc theory?
    A. It only applies to animals and does not apply to human behavior.
    B. It does not take  into account the differences in behavior between individuals.
    C. It does not include verbal aggression.
    D. It does not take history into consideration.
    B. It does not take  into account the differences in behavior between individuals.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Which of the following is not a biological force of aggression?
    A. Hormones
    B. Genetics
    C. Biochemical makeup
    D. Observation
    D. Observation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Reinforcements influence aggression by
    A. Rewarding behavior
    B. Increasing environmental cues
    C. Creating additional frustration
    D. Regulating stimuli
    A. Rewarding behavior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. According to GAM, what are elements of a given situation that can increase aggression?
    A. Personal factors
    B. Biological variables
    C. Situational factors
    D. Instinct variables
    C. Situational factors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Which of the following is not an element of an aversive experience?
    A. Pain
    B. Attack
    C. Discomfort
    D. Knowledge
    D. Knowledge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Through what method of influence does television induce violence?
    A. Authoritarianism
    B. Modeling
    C. Reiteration
    D. Frustration
    B. Modeling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Which of the following is a method to reduce aggression?
    A. Increased arousal
    B. Non-aggressive modeling
    C. Genetic engineering
    D. Appraisal
    B. Non-aggressive modeling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. The hypothesis that repeated contact with a stimulus is enough for an increase in favorable response to that stimulus is called ______.
    A. Attachment
    B. Proximity
    C. Mere exposure
    D. Interaction
    C. Mere exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Studies of the concept of physical attractiveness acroos cultures have found that
    A. Collectivist cultures place very little emphasis on physical attractiveness.
    B. People from Asian countries thend to favor smaller features.
    C. There is very little difference in what is considered physically attractive by people from different cultures.
    D. People from the United States tend to favor large eyes and prominent cheekbones.
    C. There is very little difference in what is considered physically attractive by people from different cultures.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. According to evalutionary psychologists
    A. Men seek out physically attractive mates while women seek out mates with access to resources.
    B. Women seek out younger mates while age isn't a factor for men.
    C. There is really no difference in what men and women want in a potential romantic partner.
    D. women seek out mates who are physically attractive, but men value youth above all in a partner.
    A. Men seek out physically attractive mates while women seek out mates with access to resources.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Interaction between parents and their infants is encouraged by the release of
    A. Melatonin.
    B. Adrenaline.
    C. Estrogen.
    D. Oxytocin.
    D. Oxytocin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Which attachment style results from low self-esteem paired with high interpersonal trust?
    A. Preoccupied attachment style
    B. Fearful-avoidant attachment style
    C. Secure attachment style
    D. Dismissive attachment style
    A. Preoccupied attachment style
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Which attachment style results from high self-esteem paired with low interpersonal trust?
    A. Dismissive attachment style.
    B. Secure attacment style
    C. Fearful-avoidant attachment style
    D. Preoccupied attachment style
    A. Dismissive attachment style.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. The type of love often seen in long-term relationships and characterized by stability and calm is called
    A. Comfortable love.
    B. Possionate love.
    C. Real love.
    D. Companionate Love.
    D. Companionate Love.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love describes the relationship between
    A. Intimacy, loneliness, and passion.
    B. Commitment, loneliness, and attractivenes..
    C. Intimacy, passion, and commitment.
    D. Commitment, passion, and loyalty.
    C. Intimacy, passion, and commitment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. One of the "Four Horsemen," stonewalling involves
    A. Complaining about your partner.
    B. Emotinal Withdrawal.
    C. Ignoring everything your partner says.
    D. Acting as if you are repulsed by your partner.
    B. Emotinal Withdrawal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. When one explains his or her partner's behavior in a negative way, he or she is showing evidence of
    A. Denial.
    B. Negative attributional style.
    C. Contempt.
    D. Criticism.
    B. Negative attributional style.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Charitable donation activate the same brain region that is activated when
    A. We eat something we like.
    B. We are praised by a classmate.
    C. We smile
    D. We receive a monetary reward.
    D. We receive a monetary reward.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Which of these does not factor into a cost-benefit analysis?
    A. Someone saying "tthank you"
    B. Increased popularity from helping
    C. Emotional harm to the target
    D. Emotinal harm to oneself
    C. Emotional harm to the target
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Why does positive mood influence helping?
    A. Rewards are more accessible.
    B. You like the target better.
    C. None of these
    D. Penalties are more accessible.
    A. Rewards are more accessible.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. In the empathy-altruism model of prosocial behavior, what promtes helping?
    A. Attraction
    B. Nurturing feeling
    C. Recirprocity Norm
    D. Similarity
    B. Nurturing feeling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. According to research, if you give someone a soda and then ask him to buy your raffle tickets, he will
    A. Offer to tell friends about the raffle.
    B. Offer you a soda.
    C. Buy more tickets.
    D. Want to buy more tickets but not do it.
    C. Buy more tickets.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. According to the decision model of bystander intervention, why might we not notice a need for help?
    A. Distractions
    B. Being self-focused
    C. Distance from event
    D. All of the above
    D. All of the above
  88. If others do not act as though there is an emergency happening, you will interpret the event as a noneemergency. This is called
    A. Egoism.
    B. Diffusion of responsibility.
    C. Reciprocity effect.
    D. Pluralistic ignorance.
    D. Pluralistic ignorance.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. What are the four types of aggression describe in your text and in class?
    • Hostile (Affective) Aggression - A behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is to make the victim suffer.
    • Instrumental Aggression - A behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is not to make the victim suffer, but to attain a non-injurious goal.
    • Direct Aggresion - An action or behavior that is clearly derived from the aggressor and is aimed directly at the target.
    • Inderect Aggression - An action or behavior that is not clearly derived from the aggressor, and where it is not obvious to the target that he or she has been the victim of aggression.
  90. Sigmund Freud Aggression Theory
    Freud believed that aggression stems from a self-destructive impulse and that humans must act out that impulse in order to release negative nergy and return to a state of clam - a behavior Freud refers to as a "death drive". In Sigmund Freud’s view, from the moment of conception, we carry within us both an urge to create (eros) and an urge to destroy (thanatos).  The innate urge to destroy, or death instinct, is as natural as our need to breathe.
  91. Konrad Lorenz Aggresion Theory
    Aggression is unlearned and universal, but viewed the behavior from an evolutionary perspective. He believed that through evolution, humans developed afighting instinct simlar to that found in animals. Over the course of many years, our ancestors found that aggressive behavior beneeffited them as a method of gaining resources, eliminating competition, threatening rivals, and defending agianst assailants. According to instinct theory the natural need for aggression gets stronger over time. In Konrad Lorenz’s (1966) view, human beings are born with an instinct to fight. This instinct served both the individual need to survive and the survival of the species. With the ability to manufacture weapons this instinct changed and aggression became an evolutionary adaptation
  92. Leonard Berkowitz
    (1989) Revised the frustration aggression theory; he found that frustration produced anger, and anger could then lead to aggression, but did not necessarily always do so.
  93. The type of aggression affects gender differences
    • Direct – clearly derived from aggressor, aimed at victim.
    • Indirect – not clearly derived from aggressor, victim is unclear
    • Expressive view of aggression – aggression is used to express anger and reduce stress
  94. Is aggression human nature or learned behavior 
    • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) - People are inherently bad
    • John Locke (1632-1704) - People are inherently neutral (tabula rasa)
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)  - People are inherently good
  95. Displaced Aggression
    The fact that those who provoke us often have the power to retaliate gives rise to the idea of displaced aggression. Displaced aggression is defined as aggression toward a target that exceeds what is justified by provocation by that target. Instigated by a different source, the aggression is displaced onto a less powerful or more available target.
  96. Cues for Aggression
    Leonard Berkowitz (1965) argued that cues within the immediate environment play a role in determining the kind of response that follows frustration. The mere presence of aggressive cues led to more aggressive behavior.
  97. Aversive Emotional Arousal
    Aggressive behavior is a response to aversive emotional arousal, such as anger. Accidents, insults, and attacks all arouse aversive affect—negative affect that people seek to reduce or eliminate
  98. What Influences Aggression?
    Arousal. Physical arousal has the capacity to increase our potential for aggression. Schachter and Singer (1962). -Physical arousal is the same with different emotions. -We label the arousal based on situational information. -This arousal can lead to aggression if we label events as being negative.
  99. What Leads to Attraction?
    • "Attraction" refers to both romantic and social attraction (lovers as well as friends). Proximity, mere exposure, and interaction. Proximity is the physical closeness between two individuals. Smaller proximity leads to more repeated contacts and mutual attraction. 
    • Mere exposure (the effect created by close proximity). The more we come into contact with something, the more we will like it. Tends to be true, unless our first impression is a negative one. Can hold true for photographs as well as live contact (repeated commercials). 
    • Mere exposure and proximity lead to interaction, which is  a key to attraction. With the internet now, though, interaction CAN come without exposure/proximity.
    • The impact of physical attractiveness. Whether we admit it or not, looks do matter. Attractiveness affects all sorts of things, including how much money we earn. Standards of beauty may be quite similar across many cultures. 
    • This may indicate a "hardwiring" of what we find attractive as human beings. Surprisingly, research finds that we rate people of "average" beauty the highest!
    • Why is attraction important? Physical beauty is the easiest thing to spot in social interactions. We tend to hold a "beautiful is good" stereotype. This supports a universal standard of attractiveness.
    • "Attraction" refers to both romantic and social attraction (lovers as well as friends).
  100. What are the four attachment styles?
    • Secure – high in self-esteem and IPT – 70% of babies.
    • Fearful-avoidant – low in self-esteem and IPT. 
    • Preoccupied – low self-esteem and high IPT. 
    • Dismissive – high self-esteem and low IPT.
  101. Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs and Love
    • Beeing Needs: Self-Actualization (feeling fulfilled), Aesthtic (appresition of beuty), Intellectual, and High Self Esteem.
    • Deficiency Love: Low Self Esteem, Love and Belonging (from the society, outside the person), Safety and Security (a home), and Physiological Needs (clothing).
  102. Mere Exposure Theory
    • Robert Zajonc (1968) demonstrated that the frequency of exposure to nonsense or unknown words would affect the view’s positive or negative rating of that word. The experiment was initially done with Turkish words and then with Chinese ideographs. In each case, the more an individual saw a particular word the favorable the rating the word would receive. The experiment was also conducted with facial photographs with the same results.
    • Theodore Mita, Marshall Dermer, and Jeffrey Knight (1977) developed a rather unusual experiment - Individual test subjects and one friend were exposed to two photographic images of the test subject. One mirror image and one true image.
  103. Proximity Research
    • Leon Festinger, Stanley Schacter, and Kurt Back (1950): Studied how the physical layout of an apartment complex (Westgate West) affected the relationships that formed within the complex. Note - apartments were randomly assigned to subjects for the purposes of the experiment. Relationships were more likely to form with next door neighbors rather than those who lived two doors away. Individuals were even less likely to from a relationship with a neighbor who lived three doors away. Relationships were more likely to from on the same floor rather than on another floor. One additional finding discovered that those residents who live near stairs or mailboxes developed more friendships with people overall than those who did not live near one of these things.
    • William Whyte (1956): conduct a similar experiment but he was able to use an entire community development called Park Forest. Friendships usually developed along and across streets with neighbors and those who live across the street. Rarely did friendships form with those who lived back to back (i.e. they shard a common fence).
  104. Physical Attractiveness Test
    • Elaine Walster and associates (1966) used a blind date scenario with 376 couples at the University of Minnesota.
    • Ultimately, the research indicated that the more attractive an individual was rated, the high their expectation for an attractive date. It also indicated that attractiveness was the number one priority for all of the test subjects regardless of their personal level of attractiveness. This finding was true for both the male and female subjects. The blind date was a short one-time shot and researchers did acknowledge that other factors may become more important if there were more time to get acquainted.
  105. Sigmund Freud and the Parental Image Theory
    • According to the Oedipus complex: the mother becomes the first love object for the male child. These feelings are eventually suppressed. By adolescence, when the male is free to fall in love, he selects a mate that possesses the qualities of his mother.
    • According to the Electra complex: the father becomes the first love object for the female child. These feelings are eventually suppressed. Eventually, the female adolescent seeks a mate with the qualities of her father.
  106. Robert Winch and the Complimentary Needs Theory
    • People choose relationships in which their basic needs can be mutually satisfied. A careful distinction is made to stress
    • that point that these needs are complementary rather than similar. Social characteristics may be similar but needs are complementary.
  107. Fritz Heider: Balance Theory
    • People desire cognitive consistency or balance in their thoughts, feelings, and social relationships. The triangles that have a person (you), other, and an object. Peooke desire 'cognitive consitency', we feel comfortable with others who share our attitudes (balance state). Then we feel uncofmfortable with others who don't share 'cognitive consitency'.
    • Balance: P - O /, O + Object _, P - Object .
    • Unbalanced: P - O /, O + Object _, P + Object .
    • Unbalanced, but it can change: P + O /, O + Object _, P - Object .
  108. Sequential Theory
    • Sequential theories combine other theories in to a series of stages   that individuals pass through in the process of mate selection. An example of this type of theory is the stimulus-value-role (SVR) approach. It suggest that most couples pass through three stages in the process of mate selection.
    • 1. The first point is the stimulus stage. Individuals may be drawn to one another based on the perception of qualities that might be attractive to the other person (physical attributes, voice dress, reputation, proximity, etc.). It is the initial reason individuals may decide to interact.
    • 2. If the requirements of the stimulus stage are met the couple may move on to the value comparison stage. This stage involves the appraisal of value compatibility through verbal interaction. If value consensus is achieved then the relationship is likely to continue. Dissimilar values may end a relationship.
    • 3. The role stage follows a successful comparison of values and here the couple seeks to determine if role consensus exists. Role comparison involves an evaluation of each individual’s expectations for future roles. If role consensus is achieved there is a likelihood that the relationship will continue
  109. Conflict
    The impact of attributions.Negative attributional style – when we automatically explain a partner’s actions in negative ways. Decreases relationship satisfaction and increases conflict. The green-eyed monster: How do evolutionary theorists explain jealousy in men and women differently?
  110. Dissolution
    Are there benefits to the dissolution of a relationship? Active responses to problems – either choose to end things or work to make them better. Passive responses – just wait it out and hope it improves. Active is better! Ending a relationship, while painful, can bring valuable growth potential. It is especially important if a relationship is unhealthy for one or both partners.
  111. People who have decided to help must figure out how to do so. What is not something that would stop them at this stage?
    A. Having no training in how to help
    B. Lack of conficence in how to help
    C. Limited time to hlep
    D. Feeling embarrased
    C. Limited time to hlep
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. Which of these is a trait not necessarily possessed by someone with an altruistic personality?
    A. Social responsibility
    B. Belief in a just world
    C. Extroversion
    D. Empathy
    C. Extroversion (Interest in or behavior directed toward others or one's environment rather than oneself.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. Sometimes we don't want to be helped. Which of these is not a reason why?
    A. Doing it on our own is important to our self-esteem.
    B. The helper exudes superiority.
    C. The person has fewer resources than we do.
    D. The person has more resources than we do.
    C. The person has fewer resources than we do.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. Evolutionary Factors in Helping
    • Kin selection: is the tendency to help genetic relatives. Strongest when biological stakes are particularly high.
    • Reciprocal altruism: helping someone else can be in your best interests. Increases the likelihood that you will be helped in return.
    • Indirect reciprocity: “I help you and somebody else helps me”
    • Group selection: groups that have altruistic members may be more likely to survive than groups with only selfish members.
  115. Moral Element in Helping
    Moral cleansing – engaging in actions that are meant to restore a sense of order. Neurobiological explanation – the mesolimbic reward system is activated when we give or receive rewards
  116. Cost-Benefit Model of Helping
    Cost-benefit analysis. We are more inclined to help others when it will help us as well. We weigh others’ needs with our own. If helping "costs" too much, we won’t.
  117. Norms
    • Reciprocity norm: We help others who have helped us. Even in babies there seems to be an instinctive drive to "repay" a favor.
    • Social responsibility norm: Prosocial behavior can be inspired by pressure from society and its members. Why did Americans donate nearly $308 billion dollars in 2008 during a recession? If we think a victim is to blame for their situation, however, we won’t help. Cultural norms also influence our likelihood to help.
  118. Sudan 1993
    Kevin Carter was preparing to photograph a starving toddler trying to reach a feeding center when a vulture landed nearby. He waited 20 minutes to see if the vulture would flare its wings. He finally took a picture and then chased off the vulture. However, he came under criticism for failing to help the girl. Sold to the New York Times, the photograph first appeared on March 26, 1993. Hundreds of people contacted the newspaper to ask the fate of the girl. The paper reported that it was unknown whether she had managed to reach the feeding center.
  119. Kitty Genovese and Deciding to Help
    In March, 1964, a New York City woman named Catherine “Kitty” Genovese was raped and stabbed to death as she returned home from work late at night. 38 people had witnessed some or all of the attack, which took place in two or three distinct episodes over a period of about a half hour—and yet no one did anything to stop it. No one even reported it to the police until the woman was already dead. Although the murderitself was tragic, the nation was even more outraged that so many people who could have helped seemingly displayed callous indifference. And so the failure of bystanders to intervene became known as "Kitty Genovese Syndrome." “Social psychologists sometimes call it the “Bystander Effect.”
  120. When do We Help?
    • One: Notice the emergency. Can be affected by personal life concerns and proximity to the event.
    • Two: Interpret the need for help. Pluralistic ignorance – if nobody else helps, we might believe help is not needed.
    • Three: Feel a sense of responsibility. The bystander effect – the more people present, the more we experience a diffusion of responsibility.
    • Four: Decide how to help. Do we know what is needed and are we capable of providing it? If we feel competent to help, we are more likely to do so.
    • Five: Provide help. It is best to do so in a way that does not compromise your own safety (if possible). Do we fear risk of liability? Good Samaritan protection
  121. Evaluation Apprehension
    Concern about what others expect of them and how others will evaluate their behavior. In addition, if others are present and not reacting it may seem to infer that others do not see the need to intervene. Intervention in this case would seem foolish.
  122. Altruistic personality 
    • 5 traits that correlate with prosocial behavior
    • Empathy
    • Internal locus of control
    • Belief in a just world
    • A sense of social responsibility
    • Low egocentrism
  123. What are Other Influences on Helping?
    • Mood: As noted, being in a good mood increases the chance of prosocial behavior. The mood can increase self-awareness. We match our actions with our actual self.
    • Attractiveness: sadly, we are more likely to help attractive people. Why do you think that is?
    • Similarity: We are more likely to help those similar to ourselves. Similarity = attraction
    • Race: this tendency holds for both black and white people.
    • Mimicry: acting the same way that others do. More prosocial behavior is demonstrated toward those who mimic our actions.
    • Modeling: When we observe other people (family, peers, role models) behave prosocially, we are likely to as well. The media is a big factor in this area.
    • How it feels to be helped: Help can make us feel threatened if it is critical or comes with "attitude." Help provided by an enemy? Forget about itノ (say that in a New York accent!)

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