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Why is a small body surface area compared to its volume an advantage for an animal living in cold condition?
Keeping the surface area to volume ratio to a minimun reduces heat loss
Name an adaptation that a wasp has developed to deter predators
Bright warning colours to scare predators away
How does a polor bear's white fur, help it survive?
It camoflages them, making it easier for them to sneak up on prey/avoid predators
How does a polar bear's thick layer of blubber, help it survive?
Blubber provides insulation and acts as an energy store when food is scarce
How does a polar bear's greasy fur, help it survive?
It makes it easier for them to shed water preventing cooling by evaporation
Explain how the features of a cactus help it survive in desert condition
- Has spines instead of leaves to reduce water loss
- Small surface area compared to volume reduces water loss from evaporation
- Stores water in its stem
- Deep roots to access underground water
- Extensive shallow root system to absorb water over a wide area
Animals that live in hot, dry conditions need to...
Keep cool and store water efficiently
How does having a large surface area compared to volume, help desert animals?
It lests them lose more body heat which helps them to stop overheating
How do desert animals lose less water?
By producing small amounts of concentrated urine and by making very little sweat. E.g. Camels are able to do this by tolerating big changes in body temperature, while kangaroo rates live in burrows underground where it's cool
How do desert animals keep cool by losing body heat?
They have very thin layers of body fat and a thin coat to help them lose body heat. E.g. camels store nearly all their fat in their humps
How do desert animals camouflage themselves?
By being a sandy colour which helps them to avoid predators or sneak up on prey
Animals that live in cold conditions need to...
How does having a small surface area compared to volume, help arctic animals?
Animals living in cold conditions have a compact shape to keep their surface area to a minimum which reduces heat loss
How are arctic animals well insulated?
- They have a thick layer of blubber which provides insulation and also an energy store when food is scarce
- They have thick hairy cuts to keep body heat in
- They have greasy fur which sheds water (preventing cooling due to evaporation)
How do arctic animals camouflage themselves?
They have white fur which helps them to avoid predators or sneak up on prey
How are desert plants adapted to having little water?
They make best use of the water that is available
How does having a small surface area compared to volume help desert plants?
Having a small surface area compared to volume reduces water loss
How do desert plants not lose water from their leaves?
By having spines instead of leaves (e.g. cacti)
How does a desert plant maximise water absorption?
(Like cacti) By having extensive roots to absorb water quickly over a large area or by having deep roots to access underground water
How does cacti store water?
Through its thick stem
How can a plant last longer in a desert with limited water?
By having water storage tissues
How do roses protect themselves against predators?
Give an example of an animal protecting themselves from predators with armour
A tortoise with a shell
What are the 3 main ways of a plant/animal protecting themselves against predators (give an example for each)
- Armour (cacti with their spikes)
- Producing poisons (bees/poison ivy)
- Warning colours to scare off predators (wasps)
What are extremophiles?
Extremophiles are organisms that have adapted to live in seriously extreme conditions like volcanic vents
Microorganisms are known as...
Extremophiles as they've a dapted to live in seriously extreme conditions like salty lakes. Therefore, microogranisms also have a huge variety of adaptations
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