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What do plant need from the environment to survive?
Light, space, water and minerals (nutrients) from the soil
What do animals need from their environment to survive and reproduce?
Space (territory), food, water and mates
Why do organisms compete?
To get what they need (e.g. food etc.)
What are the 4 living factors causing change in the environment where the plants and animals live?
- A change in the occurence of infectious diseases
- A change in the number of predators
- A change in the number of prey or the availability of food sources
- A change in the number of competitors
What are the 3 non-living factors causing change in the environment where the plants and animals live?
- A change in average temperature
- A change in average rainfull
- A change in the level of air or water pollution
In what 3 ways can environmental changes affect the population of plants or animals? (with an axample)
- Population increases (if the number of prey increases, then there's more food for predators, so more predators survive and reproduce, raising their numbers too)
- Population size decreases (the number of bees in the US is falling rapidly. This could be because 1) some pesticides may be having negative effects on bees 2) there's less food available - there arn't as many nectar-rich plants around any more 3) there's more disease - bees are being killed by new pathogens or parasites)
- Population distribution changes (A change in distribution means a change in where an organism lives. The distribution of bird species in Germany changing becauses of the rise in average temperature)
What are indicator species?
Organism that are very sensitive to changes in their environment and so can be studied to see the affects of human activities
Why certain types of lichen be used to monitor air pollution?
They are very sensitive to sulfur dioxide and so a number and type of lichen at a location will indicate how clean the air is (e.g. the air is clean if there are lots of lichen)
Why are mayfly larvae good indicators for water pollution?
They're very sensitive to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water as when sewage is released into a river, the bacterial population in the water increases and uses up the oxygen. Therefore, if you find mayfly larvae in the river, it indicates that the water is clean
If you see lots of maggots and sludgeworms in the water, what does this indicate and why?
It indicates a very high level of water pollution as sludgeworms and maggots have adapted to live in polluted conditions
What do scientists use satellites for, in indicating environmental change?
They meansure the temperature of the sea surface amd the amount of snow and ice cover, giving us a global coverage
What do scientists use automatic weather stations for, in indicating environmental change?
They tell us the atmospheric temperature at various locations - they can measure to very small fractions of a degree
How do scientists measure rainfull?
By using rain gauges, to find out how much the average rainfull changes year on year
What do scientists use dissolved oxygen meters for?
To measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water, to discover how the level of water pollution is changing