GCSE History

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ghoran
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184227
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GCSE History
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2012-11-19 13:52:11
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Hitler Germany how did maintain totalitarian dictatorship Nazi
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  1. we have already seen that Hitler turned Germany into a one party state and abolished trade unions . these were part of the process of turning Germany into a totalitarian state , this is a state that
    allows no rivals or opposition to the ruler and his party . In such a state , the government attempts to control as much of its citizesn lives as possible
  2. in order to maintain Nazis dictatorship the Nazis had to
    rigidly control Germany (or the Third Reich (Empire) as it was now called) . the furher would make all imprtant decisons . the Nazi party organisation supervised every citizen 
  3. each Nazi official reported information to his 
    immediate superior right up to Hitler and recieved orderds in the oppossite direction . In this way Hitler was able to control most of the German population 
  4. in order to maintain a totalitarian state , it is neccesary to set up a security systme which can make sure that
    the government's policies are enforced and crush any opposition 
  5. the Nazis had two organisations responsible for security
    the S.S. and the Gestapo 
  6. the S.S. 
    • the SS began in 1925 as a small , highly disciplined group , which acted as a bodygaurd for leading Nazis . in 1929 it was put under control of Himmler . In 1934 it played an important part in wiping out the SA leadership , from then on it was the most important security force in Germany . 
    • In 1936 it took over the police force , including the Gestapo . The SS was to be supermen of the Third Reich . They had to be physically strong and intelligent , and of aryan stock . Discipline were severe and above all SS troopers were taught blind obedience and loyalty to Hitler 
  7. the gestapo were the 
    secret state police . it was set up in 1933 . when it was linked to the SS in 1936 it came under command of Heydrich who was Himmler's deputy
  8. the tasks of the Gestapo and the SS were almost identical . they were responsible for 
    hunting down anybody who was critical of or hostile to the rule of the Nazis . Anybody suspected of polictical opposition was arrested (often late at night) and then questioned under torture . Punishments included internment in a concentartion camp (such as Dachua) or execution . 
  9. the Gestapo inspired terrror and were successful in putting down oppostion to Nazi rule . Many groups were sent to concentration camos inclduing 
    jews , gypsies , the work shy , religious groups , homosexuals and professional criminals 
  10. it was dangerous to
    say things agaisnt the Nazis in private . Complaining about the government , and anti-nazi jokes were illegal . the penalty for anti-hitler jokes was death . Everybody had to be careful when speaking to other people , as there were Nazi informers in factories , shops and offices . Even children were encouraged to inform on their own parents
  11. the SS and Gestapo were not
    restricted by the law . there were no limits on what the governments and police could do 
  12. the law courts did not 
    protect the individual . the courts were Nazified 
  13. inj 1933 all judges and magistrates that
    were not Nazis were dismissed
  14. in 1934 Hitler set up a
    new People's court for political offenders . trial in these courts were speedy , and a guilty verdict a foregone conclusion 
  15. although Nazi ideas and Christianity are opposites
    many churchmen accepted Hitler in 1933. One factor heer was that after 1929 there seemed to be only 2 possible alternatives for government - communism or Nazi . The churches feared communism most , because it was based on atheism , so many saw the Nazi party as the only possible alternative . Also they were taken in by Hitler who seemed to value Christianity
  16. the Catholic chruch signed an agreement -
    the Concordat - with the Nazis authorities in 1933 . in this agreement the Catholic chruch promised not to interfere in  German politics and in return the Nazis promised to leave the Catholic Chruch alone 
  17. despite the concordat 
    gradually Hitler began to interfere more and more in the life of the church . The Catholic Youth League was broken up , and Catholics schools were changed to Nazi schools where religious teaching was banned 
  18. the protestant church could not agree as to how much to
    co-operate with the Nazis . Some protestants joined the Reich Church under Ludwig Muller , which was under Nazi control . Other Protestant clergy however , under the leadership of Pastor Niemoller formed the confessional Chucrh to oppose the Nazis 
  19. Niemoller was sent to a
    concentration camp from 1938 to 1945
  20. the Nazi aim was not to educate young people but to
    indoctrinate them (ensure that they unquestionally accepted Nazi beliefs and ideas)
  21. the Nazi's were aware that indoctrination was unlikely to be 
    successful with older Germans so they concentrated on indoctrination of the young through schools and youth movements , to esnure their loytalty to Hitler and the Nazi party 
  22. the Nazi attitude to education can be seem in the words of the minister of education , who said 
    "The whole purpose of education is to create Nazis" .
  23. all teachers had to belong to the
    German Teachers league and teach Nazi ideas or they were dismissed 
  24. at school girls were prepared for
    motherhood and homecraft whereas boys were taught acceptance of war . All students were taught race studies , especially anti-jewish propaganda . Wherever possible , Nazi ideas were introuced into all subjects . 
  25. all teachers at universities had to be Nazi sympathisers , and entrance for students was based on 
    political belief rather than academcic acheievment . therefor Nazi members stood a batter chance of going to university , even if they were unitelligent . The Nazis placed little importance on higher education or research and many university lecturers fled from Germany 
  26. boys aged 6-10 joined the 
    pimpfen
  27. outside school , younf people were organised into
    several youth movements 
  28. boys aged 10-14 joined the
    jungvolk
  29. girls aged 10-14 joined the
    jungmadel
  30. boys aged 14-18 joined the
    Hitler Jugend 
  31. girls aged 14-18 joined the
    bund
  32. boys were given 
    physical exercise such as gymnastics , camping and hiking and were introduced to miliatary training and discipline
  33. the most pormising youngsters were sent to
    Adolf Hitler schools at the age of 12 , and if successful there , they later went to schools called Order Castles . these were to be the Nazi leaders of the future
  34. girls were trained for 
    motherhood although they took part in sports and camping , and were taught Hitler's ideas . 
  35. in what year did membership of youth groups become compulsary
    1935
  36. by 1939 how many Germans belonged to the youth movements ?
    No doubt many of them enjoyed the activities that were offered to them but it impossible to assess how successful the youth movments were in indoctrinating Germany's Youth 
    8 million
  37. an importnat method in upholding a totalitarian state is by the control of all means of 
    expression and communication . this was done by propaganda and censorhsip 
  38. propaganda is 
    like advertising . Its aim is to persuade people to think , believ and act in a way acceptable to the government 
  39. In control of Nazi propaganda was 
    Dr. Joesph Goebbels 
  40. all Germanys's radio stations were under Goebbels control and he made full use of the radio for propaganda purposes 
    cheap radios were made so that most people could afford them . There were more radios per head of population in Germany than in any other country in Europe . Hitler made numerous radio broadcasts , which were broadcast in all streeys . all cafes had to have their radios turned on for important programmes , and factories and schools also had to have radios installed 
  41. the press was controlled by 
    government agencies and journalists were told what to write . Only stories favourable to the government could be printed and any newspapers which did not comply with Goebbels' orders were closed down 
  42. an anti-sematic newspaper included 
    Der strummer 
  43. the most spectacular form of propaganda was the 
    mass rally . the most famous of the mass rallies were held in August each year at Nuremburg . A Nuremburg rally lasted a week , and held in 4 areas outside the town . Each arenas held 40,000 people who watched army parades and gymnastic displays and listened to massed choirs , brass bands and speeches . There were torchlight parades at night , air-force fly pasts and firework displays . The purpose was to impress people and glorify Nazi rule 
  44. the cinema reached a mass audience so before the film began 
    a newsreel would show what Hitler and makor Nazi figures had been doing recently . The film itself was probably made by the Nazis , and would include the Nazi message . The german film industry made over 100 films every day 
  45. when were the Berlin olympic games
    1936
  46. Hitler also attempted to use the 1936 Olympic games in Berlin for the same puposes , to show
    the rest of the world the superiority of the master race . However he was only partly successful . Germany wom most medals , but several of the main track events were won by the black U.S. athlete Jessie Owens . Hitler would not attend Owen's medal ceremony 
  47. censorhsip means 
    to ban information , ideas or entertainment , which the government think is harmful . The Nazis tried to stop opposition by controlling the media , and by banning anything that might make people question Nazi rule 
  48. the arts - Nazis tried to control what people wrote and what people could read . Over 
    2,500 writers had their works banned . These included Jewish , Socilaist and communist writers such as Thomas Mann , Albert Einstein and Bertolt Brecht 
  49. musis was closely controlled . Mendelssohn's work was banned because he was
    partly Jewish . 
  50. why was Jazz music banned 
    because it originated amongst the black people of America 
  51. a special place was given to the operas of Richard Wagner because
    they dealt with heroic German legends 
  52. art was also censored . most modern art was 
    disapproved of and the paintings of Picasso and all other works of art were siezed from galleries and museums 
  53. Book bunring ; public and university libariers were ransacked and millions of books were burned on huge bonfires . in 1933
    students in Berlin destroyed 20,000 books in a bonfire outside the university of Berlin 
  54. Third Reich
    th name given to the government of Nazi Germany 
  55. totalitarian 
    a state that allows no rivals or opposition to the ruler and his party . it is a state in which every aspect of peoples lives is controlled and monitored by those in power
  56. Gestapo 
    secret state police - who were responsible for arresting people who were critical and hostile to rule of the Nazis 
  57. concentration camp
    prison camps set up by the SS and SA in disued factories and warehouses or in hastily erected wire enclosures in the country side . Some were local camps taking overflow from nearby jails . Others specialised in particular kinds of prisoners such as trade unionists or young people 
  58. internment 
    the imprisonment of IRA suspects without trial 
  59. concordat
    the agreement singed in 1933 with Catholics by which the church promised to keep out of politics , and , in turn , the Nazis would not interfere with the churches 
  60. Reich Church
    Nazi dominated church
  61. confessional chruch
    a protestant church that arose in opposition to government -sponsored effects to Nazify the German Protestant church 
  62. censorship
    this is when a censor examines books , films , newspapers etc and bans parts that are conisdered unsuitable for the public 
  63. athiesm 
    the belief that is no God 
  64. indoctrination
    the process of programming a group of people to belive a certain set of ideas or views 
  65. worky shy
    somebody who dislikes work and tries to aviod it when possible 
  66. Nazified 
    a number of National socialist German workers party 

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